Somaliland Cyberspace

Sustainable Development Issues and Readings


  1. Background Data
  2. Sustainable development Fundamentals
  3. Choosing a development strategy
  4. Mainstreaming gender equity
  5. Establishing an impartial and independent criminal justice system
  6. Implementing sustainable development summits' recommendations s
  7. Implementing the human rights instruments
  8. Achieving the millenium development goals
  9. Protecting environment
  10. Implementing tranparent and participatory governance
  11. Closing the digital divide
  12. Resolving Ethnic Conflicts
  13. Promoting localism not globalism

Background Data

  1. UNDP. "Somalia Human Development Report 2012".
  2. "Somalia Annual Report 2013".
  3. "Overview of Somalia Human Development Report 2012: Empowering Youth for Peace and Development (29 Aug 2013)".
  4. "UNDP Somalia Strengthening Governance and Rule of Law in Somalia ". (2013)
  5. "Somalia Strengthening Governance and Rule of Law in Somalia" (2013)
  6. "Millennium Development Goals Progress Report Somalia" (2013)
  7. "Report on the MDG awareness workshop for Members of Parliament in Puntland". (2013)
  8. "Africa 2012: Towards a Food Secure Future (2012)".
  9. "Human Rights and Governance Somalia". (2001)
  10. "Human Development Report on governance" (1998).
  11. "Arab Human Development Report". (2005)
  12. "Arab Human Development Report". (2004)

    1.Sustainable Development Fundamentals

  13. IISD. "What is Sustainable Development? Environmental, economic and social well-being for today and tomorrow"
  14. "Development Goals, an introduction"
  15. Rober Kates et al. "What Is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice"
  16. IIASA. "Sustainable Rural Development (SRD) Definition of Sustainability"
  17. "Measurement of sustainable development"
  18. OAG. "Performance Measurement for Sustainable Development Strategies"
  19. Darrel Moellendorf. "The Right to Sustainable Development (video)"
  20. OECD. "Sustainable development: Critical issues"
  21. Daniel Lafleche. "Sustainable Development: What Does it Mean and Who Wants to Tell You?"
  22. Jonathan Harris. "Basic Principles of Sustainable Development"
  23. Louis Cantori. "Islam's Potential for Development"
  24. Jack Goldstone. "Islam, Development, and the Middle East: A Comment on Timur Kuran"
  25. 'Atiyya Saqr. "Islam and Development"
  26. Charles Corey. "Africa's Economic Development Potential Huge, Economist Says"
  27. Peter K. Nyikuli. "Unlocking Africa's Potential: Some Factors Affecting Economic Development and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa"
  28. Katrin Kuhlmann. "Africa's Development Corridors as Pathways to Agricultural Development, Regional Economic Integration and Food Security in Africa
  29. Claire Furphy. "The Clean Development Mechanism in Africa: Potential for Environmental, Economic and Social Benefits"
  30. David Mepham. Putting Development to Rights: Integrating Rights into a Post-2015 Agenda
  31. UN. "Declaration on the Right to Development Adopted by General Assembly (4 December 1986)"
  32. ODI. "The Right to Development: A Review of the Current State of the Development"
  33. Stephen Marks. "The Human Right to Development: Between Rhetoric and Reality"
  34. UNESCO. "The Right to Education"
  35. L. Pint. "Measuring Progress Towards Sustainable
  36. L.Pint, Peter Hardi. "Sustainable Development Indicators: Proposals for a Way Forward "
  37. UNECA. "Sustainable Development Report on Africa III"

    2. Choosing a Development Strategy

  38. K.Griffin. "Towards a Human Development Strategy"
  39. C.T Eyong and I.I Foy. "Towards Alternative Strategies for Sustainable Development in Africa"
  40. T.Bartik. "Economic Development Strategies"
  41. H.Franz. "Development strategies and food and nutrition security in Africa"
  42. J.Dixon. "Development Strategies, Pathways and Synergies"
  43. UN. "Mainstreaming Gender into Trade and Development Strategies in Africa"
  44. D.Gavel. "Rethinking Development Strategy for Africa"
  45. Paul Collier. "Growth strategies for Africa"
  46. Christopher Delgado. "Africa's changing agricultural development strategies"
  47. Pender, John L. and et al. "Strategies for sustainable agricultural development in the East African highlands"

    3. Mainstreaming Gender Equity

  48. ILO. "Definition of Gender Mainstreaming"
  49. WB. "Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Infrastructure Projects"
  50. UNFPA. "Gender Equality: a Cornerstone of Development"
  51. UNICEF. "Bringing Girls Into Focus - Beijing +15 - 2010 [PDF]"
  52. UNICEF. "Women's and Children's Rights: Making the Connection - 2011 [PDF]"
  53. UN. "Gender Influences on Child Survival, Health and Nutrition: A Narrative Review - 2011"
  54. "UNICEF Policy on Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Girls and Women"
  55. UNCIEF. "Child Marriage and the Law - 2007 [PDF]"
  56. HRW. "Q & A: Child Marriage and Violations of Girls' Rights" (2013)
  57. Jamal Badawi. "Gender Equity in Islam"
  58. UN. "Millenium development goal #3, End poverty: Gender Equity"
  59. ACLU. "Women's Rights"
  60. "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848 - 1998"
  61. Olympe De Gouges. "Declaration of the Rights of Woman, 1791"
  62. "History of women's suffrage"
  63. "Activism for Women's Rights in the Middle East and North AfricaWomen's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa"
    "I am with the uprising of women in the Arab world because I refuse to be deprived my rights because of the 'society,' knowing that my religion didn't deprive me these rights! And your society is not more aware than God!
  64. Mary Wollstonecraft. "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman With Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects"
  65. Maggie Black. "Eradication of Female Genital Mutilation in Somalia and Africa"
  66. Capacity Development for Promoting Gender Equality in the Aid Effectiveness Agenda: Lessons from Sub-Regional Consultations in Africa (September 2007)
  67. Gender and Economic Empowerment in Africa, 8th Meeting of the Africa Partnership Forum
  68. UNIFEM. "Advancing Gender Equality - Using CEDAW and UN Security Council Resolution 1325".
  69. IOCE. "Africa Gender and Development Evaluators Network"
  70. Caren Grown. "Promises to Keep: Achieving Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women" (January 2003)
  71. "Bringing Equality Home: Implementing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women" (1998)
  72. Sanja Kelly. "Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa"
  73. UNICEF. "Gender Achievements and Prospects in Education"
    "Lacking the flash and thunder of other weapons it has failed to call upon our consciences and action. Unlike the cities of gunshots and beatings, the crime, and its victims are often driven into the shadows - too scared or too ashamed to seek help..."- Medecins Sans Frontiers

    4. Establishing an Impartial and Independent Criminal Justice System

  74. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers
  75. Independence of Judiciary. Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers
  76. An Independent Judiciary: The Core of the Rule of Law
  77. Jeff Alworth. What is Independent Judiciary?
  78. The Constitution Project: An Independent Judiciary
  79. Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary
  80. African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Fair Trial and Legal Assistance in Africa,
  81. Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials,
  82. Independence and Impartiality of Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers
  83. UNCJIN. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
  84. UNCJIN. The Role of the Police
  85. Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: A Manual on Human Rights for Judges, Prosecutors amd Lawyers
  86. "Impartiality of the judiciary"
  87. OHCHR. "Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary"
  88. OHCHR. "Independence and Impartiality of Judges, Prosecutors and Lawyers."
  89. Justice at Stake. "Why Fair, Impartial Courts Matter"
  90. D.M Cooray. "An Independent Judiciary"
  91. M.Bruenger. "Promoting Judicial Reform in Developing Countries: The Challenge"
  92. S.Carbon. "The Role of Judges in Enforcing Full Faith and Credit"
  93. "Role of Prosecutors"
  94. R.Flowers. "The Role of the Defense Attorney: Not Just an Advocate"
  95. UN. "The Role Of The Police"
  96. INECE. "Role of Police"
  97. UNODC. "Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners"
  98. NIC. "Women In Prison: A Commentary on the UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners"
  99. UN. "Treatment of Prisoners, Child Protection, Violence against Women, Migrants"

    5. Implementing Sustainable Development Summits' recommendations

  100. Johannesburg Plan of Implementation - "Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development"
  101. " Implementing Sustainable Development: Proposals by Local Governments"
  102. Yvonne Rydin."After the Summit? Thoughts on the implementation of sustainable Development"
  103. UN. "Implementing Sustainable Development"
  104. UN. "Preparation and implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development"
  105. G.Seygang. "The Johannesburg Summit and Sustainable Development: How Effective are Environmental Mega-Conferences?"
  106. EU. "Ten years after Rio: Preparing for the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002"
  107. "Partnerships for Sustainable Development - Sustainable Development Implementation"
  108. UNESCO. "Drivers and Barriers for Implementing Sustainable Development in Pre-School through Upper Secondary"

    6. Implementing the Human Rights Instruments

  109. PDHRE. "Human Rights Conventions: Summaries"
  110. "African Human Rights Instruments"
  111. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights" . "Somali version"
  112. Joseph oloka-onyango. "Human Rights and Sustainable Development in Contemporary Africa"
  113. D.Banik. "Implementing Human Rights-Based Development"
  114. C.McClain-Nhlapo. "Implementing a human rights approach to food security"
  115. Norani Othman. "Implementing Women's Human Rights in Malaysia"
  116. Laitia Tamata. "Application of Human rights conventions in the Pacific Islands Courts"
  117. "Claiming Human Rights - in Africa"
  118. ACLU. "Freedom of Expression"
  119. "Beacon for Freedom of Expression"
  120. Derechos. "Freedom of Speech"

    7. Achieving the Millenium Development Goals

  121. UN. "Millenium Development Goals"
  122. "Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals"
  123. Mdgafrica. "Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Africa"
  124. WB. "Getting Serious About Meeting the Millennium Development Goals"
  125. UNFPA. "MDGs Basics: Master Plans for Development"
  126. UN. "Site for the Millennium Development Goals Indicators"
  127. UNDP. "The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008"
  128. ESCAP. "Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in an Era of Global Uncertainty"
  129. IMF. "The IMF and the Millennium Development Goals, 2014"
  130. Agenor-Bayraktar. "Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa"
  131. Africa Review. "Achieving the Millenium Development Goals in Conflict-affected Countries in Africa"

    8. Protecting Environment

  132. "African Environment and Conservation on the Internet "
  133. "57 Ways -Making The Environment A Household Word"
  134. King County. "Things you can do to protect your environment"
  135. EPA. "Protect the Environment: Act Locally"
  136. "Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict: An Inventory and Analysis of International Law"
  137. Akin L. Mabogunje. "The Environmental Challenges In Sub Saharan Africa"
  138. Yvonne Agyei. "Deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa"
  139. UN. "Africa Review Report on Drought and Desertification"
  140. P.F. Reich et al. "Land Resource Stresses and Desertification in Africa"
  141. S.C. Nana-Sinkam. "Land and environmental degradation and desertification in Africa "
  142. Ingrid Hartmann, Ahmed J. Sugulle. "The Impact of Climate Change on Pastoral Societies of Somaliland"
  143. EPA. "Climate Change | U.S. EPA"
  144. "The impact of global warming in Africa"
  145. B. Osman-Elasha. "Climate change impacts, adaptation and links to sustainable development in Africa"
  146. "The effects of Global Warming on human lives in West Africa"
  147. Bruce Melton. "Climate Change 2013: Where We Are Now - Not What You Think"
  148. Richard Smith. "Capitalism and the Destruction of Life on Earth: Six Theses on Saving the Humans" (2013)
    9. Implementing Tranparent and Inclusive governance

  149. UN. "Toward Participatory and Transparent Governance"
  150. ELI. "Africa Program: Governance. Building Capacity and Raising Awareness"
  151. "Recommendations for Transparent Governance"
  152. Nikhil Dey. "The Right to Transparent Governance"
  153. Transparency International. "Corruption Fighters' Tool Kit: Civil society experiences and emerging strategies"
  154. Neeta Verma et al. "Stakeholder Empowerment through Participatory Governance: A Case Study"
  155. Gbenga Lawal. "Corruption and Development in Africa: Challenges for Political and Economic Change "
  156. Kempe Ronald Hope, Bornwell C. Chikulo, "Corruption and Development in Africa: Lessons from Country Case Studies"
  157. Claire Furphy. "Corruption in Africa: A crime against development "
  158. Asumpta Lattus. "'Quiet corruption' undermining African development"
  159. Faith Wambura Ngunjiri. "Corruption and the Feminization of Poverty In Sub-Saharan Africa"
  160. Anwar Shah. "Corruption and decentralized public governance "
  161. UNDP. "Discussion Paper - Governance for Sustainable Development" (2014)

    10. Closing the Digital Divide

  162. Leon A. Kappelman. "The Big Picture: Closing The Digital Divide"
  163. Jaymi Heimbuch. "Closing the Digital Divide: Getting Cheap and Free Computers"
  164. Albert Ang. "Closing the digital divide across Africa"
  165. ITU. "ICTs in Africa: Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity"
  166. Josh Catone. "Bridging the Digital Divide Takes More than Just Access"
  167. Dick Ng'ambi. "ICT and Economic Development in Africa: The Role of Higher Education"
  168. Jenny Aker and Isaac Mbiti. "Mobile Phones and Economic Development in Africa"
  169. "Ecuador's Digital Agenda: Bridging the Digital Divide and Laying the Foundations for a Knowledge Economy"
  170. "Microsoft's Digital Literacy Curriculum".
  171. NCWIT. "Moving Beyond Computer Literacy: Why Schools Should Teach Computer Science"

    11. Resolving Ethnic Conflicts

  172. John M. Richardson Jr. "Ethnic peace accords and ethnic conflict resolution: survey"
  173. Kumar Rupesinghe. "Governance and conflict resolution in multi-ethnic societies"
  174. IJWB. "Resolving Ethnic Conflicts in Nation States"
  175. Ian Alexander Oas. "Reconciliatory Space: A Geographic Perspective on Resolving Ethnic Conflict"
  176. Andries Odendaal. "Ethnic Conflict and its Management. A Position Paper"
  177. "States & Ethnic Conflict"
  178. Emmy Godwin Irobi. "Ethnic Conflict Management in Africa: A Comparative Case Study of Nigeria and South Africa"
  179. Timothy Murithy. "Electoral Systems and the Management of Ethnic Conflict"
  180. Paul Collier. "Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa-Crimes of War Project"
  181. Victor Reatile Shale. "Ethnic Conflict in the Horn of Africa"
  182. World Bank. "Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics"

    12. Promoting localism not globalism

  183. "Localism (politics) From Wikipedia"
  184. Anup Shah. "Structural Adjustment-a Major Cause of Poverty"
  185. UNECA. "African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programmes"
  186. D.E. Sahn. "Implications of structural adjustment for household food security in Africa"
  187. Juliet Melville. "The Impact of Structural Adjustment on the Poor"
  188. US Congress. "The World Bank and USAID in Africa: The Tragedy of Structural Adjustment, the Promise of Broad-Based Participation"
  189. Julius O. Ihonvbere. "The World Bank/IMF Structural Adjustment Programs and the Somali Crisis"
  190. UNCTAD. "Economic development in Africa. From Adjustment to Poverty Reduction: What is New?"
  191. J. Shola Omotola and E. Kenneth Enejo. "Globalization, World Trade Organization and the Challenges of Sustainable Development in Africa"
  192. Rudolf O. Okonkwo. "The Second Scramble for Africa"
  193. Larry Cat Backer. "Courting Africa--21st Century China Africa Investment and Cooperation Forum"
  194. Pierre Gomez. "Western Domination, Imperialism and Exploitation"
  195. "Profiting from Western companies and consultants exploit Africa."
  196. Richard Drayton. "The wealth of the west was built on Africa's exploitation"
  197. "Imperialism in Africa Readings"
  198. "Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in Africa"
  199. Hartford. "The history of neocolonialism in Africa as a whole"
  200. Obi Akwani. "Neo-Colonialism in African Literature"

Check also Sustainable development papers (1996-2000)