Somaliland CyberSpace

Somaliland documentation archives



  1. GTrard Prunier. Somaliland: an African exception (2010)
  2. Muhyadin A. Saed. From Conventional Peacebuilding Paradigms in Post-Conflict Settings and Reconstruction to Systemic Multi-Foci Approaches: The Case of Somaliland (2010)
  3. Cidcm. Assessment for Issaq in Somalia (2010)
  5. A Roadmap for Pending Elections and The Registration of New Political Associations (2010)
  6. Geldenhuys, Deon. "Contested States in Africa" (2010)
  7. Dominik Helling. Tillyan Footprints Beyond Europe: War-Making and State-Making in the Case of Somaliland (2010)
  8. Liban Abdi Hassan. Report on Somaliland Election 2010 June 26th (2010)
  9. Mohammed Hassan Ibrahim and Ulf Terlinden. Somaliland: ‘home grown’ peacemaking and political reconstruction. (2010)
  10. brahim Hashi Jama. Making the Somaliland constitution and its role in democratization and peace. (2010)
  11. Marleen Renders. Traditional leaders and institutions in the building of the Muslim republic of Somaliland (2010)
  12. Chathamhouse. Somaliland’s Election: Views from the Parties (2010)
  13. Somaliland 2nd Democratic Presidential Election in Sight: 26 June,2010 (2010)
  14. Lonely Planet. Somaliland Trip Report - (2010)
  15. Shingirai Maparura. Multiparty democracy in the Horn of Africa: Somaliland 2010 presidential elections (2010)
  17. Mangan, Fiona. And Let Us Not Forget Somaliland (2010)
  18. McConnell, Tristan. The Invisible Country: Somaliland's Struggle for Independence (2010)
  19. Walls, Michael/Kibble, Steve. Beyond Polarity: Negotiating a Hybrid State in Somaliland (2010)
  21. Nicholas Eubank. Taxation, Political Accountability, and Foreign Assistance: Lessons from Somaliland (2010)
  22. Nicholas Eubank. Peace-Building without External Assistance: Lessons from Somaliland (2010)
  23. Stephanie Hanson. Opinion: Lessons from Somaliland(2010)
  24. Adam Haji Ali Ahmed. Politics of Transitional Justice Mechanisms from Below: The Case of Somaliland (2010)
  25. J. Peter Pham. Ballots and Bullets: The Tale of the Two Somalia (2010)
  26. Medhane Tadesse. The Somaliland Orchestra: An African Masterpiece in Democratic Elections (2010)
  27. Anna Lindley. Seeking refuge in an unrecognized state: Oromos in Somaliland.(Report) (2009)
  28. Berouk Mesfin. The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland (2009)
  29. Somaliland Democratization and the Challenges of Free and Fair Election (2009)
  30. Human Rights Watch. Somaliland: “Hostages to Peace”: Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland (2009)
  31. Chatham House.Somaliland’s Role in the Stability of the Horn of Africa (2009)
  32. Michael Walls. Somaliland: Democracy Threatened/Constitutional Impasse as Presidential Elections are Postponed (2009)
  33. Markus V. Hoehne. The bombings in Somaliland and Puntland – an attempt to drag the north into the politics of violence in southern Somalia. (2009)
  34. Omar Ahmed, Grant J. Rich. Review: Mark Bradbury. Becoming Somaliland (2009)
  35. Markus V. Hoehne. Mimesis and mimicry in dynamics of state and identity formation in northern Somalia (2009)
  36. TOBIAS DEBIEL.Local State-Building in Afghanistan and Somaliland (2009)
  37. Michael Barry and Florian Bruyas. Formulation of Land Administration Strategy in Post-Conflict Somaliland (2009)
  38. Nicole Stremlau. Media Policy and Elections in Somaliland: Lessons from Kenya (2009)
  40. Markus V. Hoehne. Struggle for education and development in Somaliland’s eastern periphery (2009)
  41. CGI. Somaliland: A Way out of the Electoral Crisis (2009)
  42. Rebecca Richards. Democratisation in the Horn of Africa: Contestation Between the ‘Old’ and ‘New’ in Somaliland (2008)
  43. J. Peter Pham. The U.S. and Somaliland: A Road Map. (2008)
  44. Mohamed Farah Hersi. Possibilities of International prosecution against the former Somali regime for human rights abuses in Somaliland. (2008)
  45. Mohamed Hussein Abby. The Land of Poun (Punt) (2008)
  46. APD. PEACE IN SOMALILAND: An Indigenous Approach to State-Building Burao, Borama, and Sanaag Conferences (2008)
  47. J.Peter Pham. France obtained permission from Somaliland authorities to use the abandoned U.S. base at Berbera. (2008)
  48. Abdisalam Yussuf Farah. The Official Launching ceremony for ANPPCAN Somaliland Chapter (2008)
  49. Luca Ciabarri. Productivity of refugee camps: social and political dynamics from the Somaliland-Ethiopia border (2008)
  50. Kidane Mengisteab. Reconciling Africa’s Fragmented Institutions of Governance: Is Somaliland charting a new path? (2008)
  51. Seth Kaplan. The Remarkable story of somaliland (2008)
  53. LIDWIEN KAPTEIJNS. Review: Becoming Somaliland(2008)
  54. Ibrahim Hashi Jama. Somaliland Local Government Re-organisation through Presidential Decrees in an Election Year (2008)
  55. Izzy Birch. Becoming Somaliland (2008)
  56. Markus V. Höhne. Newspapers in Hargeysa: Freedom of speech in post-conflict Somaliland (2008)
  57. Franco Henwood. A Contribution to the Case for Somaliland’s Recognition (2007)
  58. Peggy Hoyle. Somaliland: Passing the Statehood Test? (2007)
  59. Peter J. Schraeder. Why the United States Should Recognize Somaliland’s Independence (2007)
  60. APD. Somaliland: Land-based Conflicts (2007)
  61. Jeffrey Gettleman. The Other Somalia: An Island of Stability in a Sea of Armed Chaos (2007)
  62. Progressio. Somalia/Somaliland: Territory, State (2007)
  63. Strengthening the Role of Parliament in Constructive Conflict Management. Case study of Somali Experiences. (2007)
  64. Michael A. Weinstein. Somaliland Moves to Close its Borders and is Caught in a Web of Conflict (2007)
  65. Ibrahim Hashi Jama. Somaliland Press: Publications Bill 2007 (2007)
  66. Tabea ZIERAU. State Building without Sovereignty: The Somaliland Republic (2007)
  67. Nauja Kleist. Somaliland: The Big Demonstration - A study of transborder political mobilisation (2007)
  68. David H. Shinn. Somaliland and U.S. Policy (2007)
  69. APD. The Academy Today Newsletter: Academy for Peace and Development - Issue 1, (2007)
  70. Michael Torome. Somaliland: Africa’s Best Kept Secret(2007)
  71. J. Peter Pham. Somaliland: On the Road to Independent Statehood? (2007)
  72. Kevin Kelley. Recognise Somaliland, analysts tell US (2007)
  73. Markus V. Hoehne. Puntland and Somaliland Clashing in Northern Somalia: Who Cuts the Gordian Knot? (2007)
  74. By Ann Scott Tyson. The Pentagon’s View Is That “Somaliland Should Be Independent,” Another Defense Official Said. (2007)
  75. Peter Tatchell. In Praise of Somaliland: A Beacon of Hope in The Horn of Africa (2007)
  76. USDS. United States Policy on Somaliland (2007)
  77. Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck. Conditional Recognition Sought For Somaliland By EU Party (2007)
  78. Haatuf's pictorial evidence of corruption(2007)
  79. Somaliland corruption led by President Dahir Rayale and his wife Huda (2007)
  80. Somaliland
  81. Somaliland Assistance Bulletins(07-05)
  82. Jama Mohamed. Kinship and contract in Somali politics. (2007)
  83. APD. Creating an Enabling Environment for Decentralisation in Somaliland. Local Solutions (2006)
  84. Somaliland Focus newsletter: Interview with Adan Abokor, Progressio (2006)
  85. Steve Kibble/Adan Yusuf Abokor. Thoughts on elections and post-elections: a Somaliland/ UK civil society perspective.(2006)
  86. Jawahir Adam. Somaliland: a window to the future (2006)
  87. From Plunder to Prosperity/Resolving Resource-Based Conflict in Somaliland(2006)
  88. The Implication of Traditional leadership, "Guurti" & other non-state Actors in Somaliland (2006)
  89. Elizabeth Clark. Somaliland: A Democracy Under Threat (2006)
  90. IQBAL JHAZBHAY. Islam and Stability in Somaliland and the Geo-politics (2006)
  91. "Somaliland: The Other Somalia with No War" (2006)
  92. Somaliland Assistance Bulletin July-September (2006)
  93. Dilemma of the Horn: the West Pushes for Somaliland Recognition (2006)
  94. Global recognition for Somaliland a must (2006)
  95. Geoff Hill. Somaliland's plight(2006)
  96. Will Reno. A country only to its own citizens(2006)
  97. Alex McBride. Welcome to Somaliland (2006)
  98. Africa Analysis. Somaliland: The urgent AU task (2006)
  99. D. Simpson. The Ghost of Somalia: Somaliland Should be Allowed to Depart a Chaotic Country in Transition (2006)
  100. Simon Plummer. World Stage: A forgotten democracy in the Horn of Africa (2006)
  101. Farhiya Ali. Somaliland: elusive independence (2006)
  102. Iqbal Jhazbhay. Somaliland has strong case for recognition(2006)
  103. The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia (2006)
  104. Markus V. Höhne. Traditional Authorities in Northern Somalia: Transformation of positions and powers(2006)
  105. ICG. Somaliland: Time for African Union Leadership (2006)
  106. Somaliland: Past, Present and Future
  107. Steve Kibble. Briefing to the inaugural meeting of the All Party Parliamentary Group on Somaliland (2006)
  108. Steve Kibble. Somaliland: The Post Election Path (06)
  109. Mohamed-Rashid SH. Hassan. Somaliland State Formation: Challenges and Possibilities (2005)
  110. IRI. Somaliland: Empowering the parties(2005)
  111. John Drysdale. Cadastral Surveys: addressing territorial disputes in Somaliland Cadastral Surveys/addressing territorial disputes (2004)
  112. I.M.Lewis. Lessons from Somaliland: appropriate technology for `Peace processes' (2005)
  113. Shane Quinn. Somaliland elections boost hopes for peace (2005)
  114. Somaliland Elections for the Lower House of Parliament (2005)
  115. Kurt Shillinger. Recognizing Somaliland: Forward Step in Countering Terrorism? 2005
  116. Simanowitz, Stefan. Democracy Comes of Age in Somaliland (2005)
  117. Peter Hurst. Somaliland's democratic lesson (2005)
  118. BBC. Somaliland's missing identity (2005)
  119. Richard Rahn. Curious Case of Somaliland (2005)
  120. Harry Garnett. Somalia Public Sector Issues (2005)
  121. Counter-Terrorism in Somalia: Losing Hearts and Minds (2005)?
  122. Observation Report On Somaliland Presidential Elections Implemented by NAGAAD & COSONGO (2005)
  123. CIIR. Somaliland Elections to House of Representatives. Final. (2005)
  124. CIIR. Further steps to democracy: The Somaliland parliamentary elections (2005)
  125. IRI. Somaliland Parliamentary Election Assessment Report (2005)(American group)
  126. Mariam Jooma. Experiences from the parliamentary elections in Somaliland (2005)
  127. Report on JNA Mission to Somaliland and Puntland (2005)
  128. NEC. Code of Conduct for the Political Parties (2005)
  129. Rakiya Omaar. Taking the Tiger by the Tail: Somaliland's Forthcoming Elections (2005)
  130. Brigitte Fahrenhorst. Donor Assistance to Somalia and Somaliland: Policy and Conference (2005 )
  131. I.M.Lewis. Academic View Of Somaliland Recognition (2005)
  132. I.M. Lewis. Visible and invisible differences: the Somali paradox. (2004)
  133. Ruin and Renewal: The story of Somaliland (2004)
  134. Battera. State-& democracy-building in Sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Somaliland (2004)
  135. Matt Bryden. Somalia and Somaliland: Envisioning a dialogue on the question of Somali unity (2004)
  136. M.Jama. The Political Ecology of Colonial Somaliland (2004)
  137. Jeffrey Herbst. In Africa, What Does It Take to Be a Country' (2004)?
  138. Dustin Dehz. Somaliland and the Issue of International Recognition
  139. Somaliland: Trying to behave like a proper state (2005)
  140. Organizational Review of the NDC and SOOYAL (2005)
  141. Steve Kibble. Somaliland: Surviving Without Recognition;Somalia: Recognised but Failing? (2004)
  142. Magi Black. Somaliland: will the good times keep rolling? (2004)
  143. British Parliament's Debate On Somaliland (2004)
  144. Nathalie Peutz. Signpost in Somaliland's Quest for Sovereignty
  145. I.M. Lewis. As The Kenyan Somali 'Peace' Conference Falls Apart In Confusion, Recognition Of Somaliland's Independence Is Overdue
  146. Iqbal Jhazbhay. As a success story, Somaliland is Africa's best kept secret (2004)
  147. Traditional Governance in South Central Somalia (2004)
  148. Will Reno. Somalia And Survival In The Shadow Of The Global Economy (2004)
  149. Africa Analysis. Two Somali states must be allowed to co-exist (2004)
  150. The African Union (AU) and its obstinate dilemma vis-.-vis The Republic of Somaliland '04
  151. Ninna Sorensen. Opportunity & Pitfalls in the Migration-development Nexus: Somaliland and Beyond (2004)
  152. Time To Come Home: Repatriation Projects for Somaliland (2004)
  153. Dahir Rayale. Speech to Members of British House of Commons (2004)
  154. Federico Battera. Some Considerations on State Building in Divided Societies and the Role of the "International Community": Somaliland and Somalia Compared (2003)
  155. Edna Adan Ismail. Peace, Education, and Economic Development in Somaliland (2003)
  156. Patrick Gilkes. National Identity and Historical Mythology in Eritrea and Somaliland (2003)
  157. IQBAL JHAZBHAY. SOMALILAND: Africa’s best kept secret, A challenge to the international community? (2003)
  158. UNDP. Somalia: Governance (2003)
  159. Farhiya Ali Ahmed. The Sovereignty Of Somaliland And Its Role In The Conflict Resolution (2003)
  160. Somaliland's Resurgence a Key to CT War (2003)
  161. Mark Bradbury & et al. Somaliland: Choosing Politics over Violence (2003)
  162. Report on a Training Needs Assessment of the Somaliland Civil Service (2003)
  163. Ralph Johnstone. How Somaliland Successfully Hosted its First Parliamentary Elections in 35 years(2003)
  164. Report on the Somaliland Presidential Elections Report, 2003 (South African Mission) (2)
  165. Report on the Somaliland Presidential Elections (South African Mission) (1)
  166. Somaliland: Presidential Election 2003 (Danish Group) (2003)
  167. Ian S. Spears. Reflections on Somaliland & Africa’s Territorial Order(2003)
  168. COSONGO Domestic Observations Report on Somaliland Local Councils Elections, Held on December 15, 2002 (2003)
  169. Voting For Democracy. (Dutch Group) (2003)
  170. David Shinn. The Horn of Africa: How does Somaliland fit? (03)
  171. Jean-Jacques Cornish. Somaliland: Hope in the Horn of Africa (2003 )
  172. ICG. Somaliland: Democratisation and its Discontents (2003)
  173. Symposium On Civil Society Concluded In Hargeisa (2003)
  174. Ali Hassan. Good Governance in the Somalia Context/Supporting Local governance
  175. M. Jama. Somalia and Somaliland: Strategies for dialogue and consensus ... (2003)
  176. Asteris Huliaras. The Viability of Somaliland: Internal Constraints and Regional Geopolitics (2002)
  177. David Shinn. Somaliland: The Little Country that Could (2002)
  178. APD. Somaliland: Consolidation and Decentralization of Government Institutions (2002)
  179. Adam Mohamed Egeh. The Triumph of Democracy in Somaliland (2002)
  180. George Packer. Letter From Somaliland (2002)
  181. Somalia N.W. Demobilisation and Re-integration Programme Evaluation Report(2002)
  182. EU. Report on the Somaliland Local Elections held on 15 December 2002
  183. Y. Boobe. The Role of Media in political reconstruction(2002)
  184. M.Jama. Imperial policies and nationalism in the decolonization of Somaliland, 1954-1960. (2002)
  185. Markus Hoehne Virgil. Report on the recent situation in Somaliland
  186. Guido Ambroso. Pastoral society and transnational refugees: population movements in Somaliland (2002)
  187. Tabea Zierau. Politics and Economy in Nation-building Processes: Somaliland Republic (2002)
  188. Ahmed Yusuf Farah. Roots of Reconciliation: Local Level Peace Processes in Somaliland
  189. Steven R. Hofmann. The Divergent Paths of Somalia and Somaliland: (2002)
  190. Sean Rorison. Into Somaliland: An Obscure Route to an Obscure Country
  191. Somaliland Local Councils Elections Held of December 2002 (2002)
  192. Nicholas Van Hear. Refugee return and reconstruction after war: class, conflict and forced migration in Sri Lanka and Somaliland.
  193. IRIN. A Decent Burial - Somalis yearn for justice (2001)
  194. T. Craig Murphy. The Collapse of Somalia and Economic Considerations (2001)
  195. Ahmed "Silanyo". The challenges in Somaliland (2000)
  196. Mary Hope Schwoebel. Impact Evaluation of The War-Torn Societies Project: Somaliland (2001)
  197. IRI. Somaliland National Referendum May 31, 2001(2001)
  198. IRIN Special - A Question of Recognition (2001)
  199. Position of Somaliland On the Djibouti Peace Initiative on Somalia (2000)
  200. Frank Douglas Heath. Whither Somaliland 2000
  201. Jeremy Wells. Cabinda & Somaliland - A Comparative Study for Statehood & Independence
  202. A Self-Portrait of Somaliland: Rebuilding from the Ruins, 1999
  203. Ian Fisher. Somaliland: An Oasis of Peace in Somalia Seeks Freedom (1999)
  204. A nomad's life is hard. (Somaliland's struggle for independence from Somalia) (1999)
  205. Ismail I. Ahmed and Reginald Herbold Green. The Heritage of War and State Collapse in Somalia and Somaliland:(1999)
  206. Small Arms in Somaliland: Their Role and Diffusion, 1999
  207. US.Congress. Concerning Economic, Humanitarian, and Other Assistance to Northern Somalia (1998)
  208. Suleiman Dirir Abdi. Report on peace-making initiative in Somaliland (1997)
  209. Matt Bryden. Somaliland: Situation Analysis/ TFG Victory in Mogadishu and its Implications for Somaliland(1997)
  210. Ahmed Y. Farah and Ioan M. Lewis. Making Peace in Somaliland (1997)
  211. Gerard Prunier. Surviving without the UN. Somaliland, a forgotten country (1997)
  212. Another country: Somaliland. (unrecognized independent state in Somalia) (1996)
  213. M. Bryden. Somaliland at the cross-roads(1996)
  214. M. Bryden. Somaliland and Peace in the Horn of Africa: A Situation Report and Analysis (95)
  215. Matt Bryden. Prospects for Peaceful Solution to the Conflict in Somaliland (1995)
  216. Update on the Situation in the North (Somaliland) (1995)
  217. Matt Bryden. Report on Mission to Somaliland 15/12/94 TO 21/12/94 (1994)
  218. Matt Bryden. Situation in Somaliland as of 25 November 1994 (1994)
  219. Julie Flint. Struggling to survive. (Somaliland) (1994)
  220. Somaliland: Going It Alone. Interview. (1994)
  221. Ahmed Yusuf Farah. Somalia: The Roots of Reconciliation (93) Full report.
  222. Ian Alexander. Rebuilding a shattered land (1993)
  223. R.Omaar. Somaliland: The best chance for peace. (1993)
  224. Abdulkarim Ahmed Guleid. Demobilizing Most of the SNM Military Forces (1991 )


  225. Oduori, S., Vargas, R., Alim, M. Land Use Characterisation of a Selected Study Area in Somaliland (2010)
  226. Sean McLachlan. Ancient cave art discovered in Somaliland (2010)
  227. M.Y. Ali. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland (2009)
  228. Sada Mire. The Discovery of Dhambalin Rock Art Site, Somaliland (2008)
  229. Monaci, L., Downie, M., Oduori, S. Land Cover of Selected Study Areas in Somaliland and Southern Somalia (2007)
  231. SWALIM. Rural Water Supply Assessment report (2007)
  232. Water profile of Somalia (2007)
  233. Somalia: Solar Cooking (2006)
  234. M. Ali. Hydrocarbon potential of Somaliland(2006)
  235. NAGAAD. Environment Forum: Tisqaad Environment Network (2005)
  236. M. Ali. Somaliland Once Again Becomes Accessible Oil Resources (2005)
  237. Surud Montain Forest in Somaliland(2004)
  238. The Mineral Industry of Somalia (2004)
  239. Water Shortage in Somaliland (2004)
  240. John Miskell. An Ecological and Resource Utilization Assessment of Gacan Libaax Somaliland (2003)
  241. Malte Sommerlatte. An Ecological Assessment of the Coastal Plains of North Western Somalia (Somaliland) (2003)
  242. Community Based Participatory Natural Resource and Land Management Planning
  243. Ministry of Water and Mineral Resources: National Water Policy
  244. Peter D. Little. The Global Dimensions of Cross-border Trade in Somalia Borderlands. (2002)
  245. Rich gemstone potentials discovered in Somaliland (2001)
  246. IUNC. Towards Environmentally Sound Water Projects in Somalia(2000)
  247. Martin Herzog. Forestry and Woodland Management in Somaliland
  248. Osman A Farah. Water sources management in rural Somaliland (1999)
  249. Biodiversity Assessment of the Somali Coast of Berbera (1999)
  250. Maria Kielmas. Oil Hopes Hinge on North Somalia & Somaliland: Hopes and hype on the new frontier. (1991)


  251. Mahamud M. Yahye. How to Tackle Unemployment in Somalia (2007)
  252. Energy profile of Somalia (2007)
  253. SJNA: Productive Sectors and Environment Cluster Report (2006)
  254. Ibrahim H. Mohamed. The Sool Plateau Livelihood and Food Security Project (2006)
  255. Somali Reconstruction and Development Framework: (2006)
  256. Geoffrey T. Mulama. On Poverty Monitoring and Recovery Guidelines Analysis System for Somalia (2006)
  257. Steve Kibble. `The Governance and Economic Development of Somaliland' (2006)
  258. Exposing The Plot Of The Minister Of Mineral & Water Resources And Rova Energy (2006)
  259. BBC. Learning for Livelihoods in Somalia: Initial Insights on Audience Patterns and Preferences (2006)
  260. Safia Omar and Mohamed Younis. The Experience of Integrated Community Development Programme in Somaliland (2005)
  261. Somaliland's prosperous refugees return to invest in their country (2005)
  262. Ashley Hall. Viability of a Sustainable Frankincense Market In Somaliland: A Historical and Economical Analysis (2005)
  263. Somaliland: Harnessing Solar Power(2005)
  264. Philip Appleton. Promotion of Employment through Training in Somalia (2004)
  265. APD. Analysis of Macro-Economic Situation in Somaliland (2004)
  266. Tatiana Nenova. Private sector response to the absence of government institutions in Somalia. (2004)
  267. Cadastral Surveys: addressing territorial disputes in Somaliland
  268. Pre-Feasibility Study of the Regional Transport Sector in the Berbera Corridor (2003)
  269. Pre-Feasibility Study of the Regional Transport Sector in the Berbera Corridor (2003)
  270. Hargeisa Municipality Statistical Abstract (2003)
  271. Hargeisa Urban Household Economy Assessment (2003)
  272. Somaliland In Northern Africa Appears To Be The New Potential Gemstone-Bearing Area Comparable To Madagascar Or Tanzania (2002)
  273. Somalia Socio Economic Survey (2002)
  274. Millennium Development Goals for Somalia (2002)
  275. Supporting Local Seed Systems in Southern Somalia: (2001)
  276. Why the Body Shop goes shopping in Somaliland (2001)
  277. WB. Consultations with the Poor: National Synthesis Report Somaliland (1999)
  278. John Soussan. Somalia: Technical Committee for Energy - Final Report (1999)
  279. PAC. Peace and Development in Northern Somalia: Opportunities and Challenges (1997)
  280. Degan Ali, Fanta Toure. Cash relief in a contested area Lessons from Somalia
  281. Report on Relief, Rehabilitation and Development activities in the Sanag Region (1993)
  282. Metz, H.C. Somalia: The Economy (1992)
  283. Y. Hossein Farzin. Food Import Dependence in Somalia Magnitude, Causes, and Policy Options (1988)


  284. Cross-border Livestock Trade Assessment Report: Impacts of lifting the livestock import ban on food security in Somalia, Ethiopia, and the Djibouti borderland (2010)
  285. By Ilona Gluecks, VSF Suisse and Mario Younan. Camel Sudden Death Syndrome: Outbreak of an Unknown Camel Disease in the Horn of Africa (2010)
  286. Nisar Majid. Livestock Trade in the Djibouti, Somali and Ethiopian Borderlands (2010)
  287. Somaliland Pastoral Program Development (2010)
  290. David K. Leonard. The Political Economy of Livestock Policy Among the Somalis (2008)
  291. Regional Baselines: Golis, Guban & Sool & Hawd(2007)
  292. Mark Rweyemamu. Somali Animal Health Services Project Mid-Term Project Evaluation Report (2007)
  293. Yohannes Mehari. Camels and Camel producst marketing in Jijiga, Somali region, Ethiopia (2006)
  294. The Future of Pastoralism in Ethiopia
  295. Access to water, pastoral resource management and pastoralists' livelihoods Lessons learned from water development in of Eastern Africa 2006)
  296. Michele Nori. Milking drylands: the marketing of camel milk in North-East Somalia. (2006)
  297. Cagnolati, Tempia, S. and Abdi, A, M. Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever on the Somali Livestock Industry and a novel surveillance approach in nomadic pastoral systems. (2006)
  298. Pan African Control of Epizootics(PACE) Somali Component (2005)
  299. David Trechter. Somali Goat Meat Preference Survey
  300. Mengistu U. Performance of the Ethiopian Somali Goat during different Watering Regimes
  301. Support to Livestock Exports from the Horn of Africa (EXCELEX) Project (2005)
  302. K.O. Farah. The Somali and the Camel: Ecology, Management and Economics (2004)
  303. Mark Liberman. 46 Somali words for camel(2004)
  304. Somalia: Towards a Livestock Sector Strategy. (2004)
  305. Gu 2003 Mid Season Pastoral Assessment In Somaliland and Puntland(2003)
  306. Tackling Somaliland Pastoralists poverty and Environmental Degradation (2003)
  307. David Hadrill. Mapping of seasonal migrations in the Sanaag region of Somaliland
  308. Cindy F. Holleman. The Socio-economic Implications of the Livestock Ban in Somaliland (2002)
  309. Regulating the Livestock Economy of Somaliland (2002)
  310. An Outbreak of Rift Valley Fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997-98 (2002)
  311. Yohannes Gebre Michael. Water harvesting technologies in assuring food security: Lessons from Somali Region, Ethiopia (2001)
  312. Andy Catley. Community-based Animal Health Care in Somali Areas Africa: A Review (2000)
  313. Husbandry and management of camels in Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti (nd)
  314. Somalia: IRIN Focus on Saudi livestock ban (1999)
  315. Pastoralists, Paravets and Privatisation: Experiences in Sanaag (1998)
  316. IRIN Special - The Berbera Lifeline
  317. Mujeeb Al-Najim. Changes in the Species Composition of Pastoral Herds in Bay Region, Somalia
  318. Somali Animal Bulletin (1999)
  319. Paula Puffer. The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in Development Programs Concerning Somali Pastoralists and Their Camels (1995)
  320. Urs J Herren. The Commercial Sale of Camel Milk from Pastoral Herds in Mogadishu (1990)
  321. Ahmed A Elmi. Camel Husbandary & Management in Ceeldheer Pastoralists in Central Somalia (1989)


  322. Somalia Fisheries profile (2005)
  323. Feasibilty Report on the Fisheries Sector in Somalilandlegal Fishing and Dumping Hazardous Wastes Threaten the Development of Somali Fisheries and the Marine Environments. (1999)
  324. The Somalia Inshore Lobster Resource of the Northeast Region (1998)
  325. Scott Coffen-Smout. Pirates, Warlords and Rogue Fishing Vessels in Somalia's Unruly Seas (1998)
  326. Somali Fishery Law Nø 23 of 30 November 1985
  327. Mohamed Yassin. Somali Fisheries development & management (1981)


  328. Tristan McConnell. Remittances a lifeline to Somalis. (2009)
  329. Volker Hnls. Soft Law, Hard Compliance/ Somalia’s Informal Funds Transfer Systems in the International Legal Order (2007)
  330. Anna Lindley. Migrant remittances in the context of crisis in Somali society/ A case study of Hargeisa (2006)
  331. Anna Lindley. Migration and financial transfers: UK-Somalia. (2006)
  332. Samuel Maimbo. Remittances and Economic Development in Somalia (2006)
  333. Cindy Horst. Xawilaad: The Importance of Overseas Connections in the Livelihoods of Somali Refugees in Dadaab, Kenya (2003)
  334. Migrant Transfers As a Development Tool: The Case of Somaliland
  335. Buri M. Hamza. The Somali Remittance Sector in Canada
  336. Ken Menkhaus. Remittance companies and money transfers in Somalia (2001)
  337. Ahmed, Ismail I. Remittances and Their Economic Impact in Post-war Somaliland (2000)


  338. Somaliland: Opposition party leaders jailed after unfair trial, defence lawyers fined and banned from practising(2007)
  339. Conditions in Hargeisa central prison (2005)
  340. US. Somalia: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2005)
  341. Girl jailed for espionage released in Somaliland(2005)
  342. Status and (Human Rights) Obligations of Non-recognized De Facto Regimes in International Law: The Case of 'Somaliland.' (2005)
  343. Report on Familiarisation Tour to Somaliland(2005)
  344. Ghanim Alnajjar. Situation of human rights in Somalia (2004)
  345. UK. Somalia Country Report Human Rights (2004)
  346. Declaration of Somali Human Rights Defenders (2003)
  347. Somaliland: Shadows of the Past As Human Rights Deteriorate 2003
  348. Training on the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Hargeisa,
  349. Zeinab Ahmed. Human Rights & Ecological Health (1999)
  350. AI. Human rights in Somaliland: Awareness and action (1998)


  351. The Consumption of Khat and Other Drugs in Somali Combatants: A Cross-Sectional Study (2007)
  352. Kim Sengupta. The Rise Of Khat: Somaliland's Bitter Harvest (2006)
  353. Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: A cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia (2005)
  354. Shilpa L. Patel. Khat use among Somalis in four English cities (2005)
  355. Riaan Manser. Chat train: Spending lazy Friday afternoons in Djibouti (2005)
  356. Glenice Cox and Hagen Rampes. Adverse effects of khat: a review (2003)
  357. USDJ. Intelligence Bulletin: Khat (Catha edulis) (2003)
  358. Cathy Havell. Khat use in Somali, Ethiopian and Yemeni communities in England:
  359. War-trauma, Khat Abuse and Psychosis: Mental Health in ... Somaliland(2002)
  360. R.H. Green. Khat & the realities of Somalis: (1999)
  361. Lenard Milich. The "Rational Peasant" vs Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Qat in Yemen (1995)
  362. C.Pantelis, Use and abuse of khat (Catha edulis): a review ... (1989)
  363. A. Elmi. Experience in the control of khat-chewing in Somalia (1987)


  364. Teresa M. Kruizenga. Teaching Somali Children: What Perceived Challenges Do Somali Students Face in the Public School System?(2010)
  365. EU. EC Somalia Operations- Education Sector Support Strategy- Revision (2010)
  366. Jamal Abdi, Leah Matthews. Somali Girl’s Education (ISPABE Project) Qualitative Research Findings (2009)
  367. Fowsia Warsame. Barriers and Constraints to Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Somalia(2008)
  368. Geeta Menon. Active-Learning Pedagogies: Policy, Professional Development and Classroom Practices- A case study of two post-conflict contexts: Afghanistan and Somaliland(2008)
  369. Harvey Smith. ‘Formal’ versus ‘non-formal’ basic education: prioritising alternative approaches in fragile states. (2007)
  370. APD. The Status of Civic Education in Somaliland (2007)
  371. Resource Guide for the Development of a Youth Policy in Puntland (2007)
  372. Michael Brophy. Radio Literacy and Life Skills for Out-of-School Youth in Somalia (2007)
  373. Mahamud M. Yahye. Reviving Somalia's Ruined Education System (2007)
  374. A Report of the Impact Assessment of Non-formal Education in Somaliland/Putland(2007)
  375. Somaliland: Global Campaign for Education (2007)
  376. UNICEF Strategy for Education in Somalia(2007)
  377. Promotion of Employment Through Training - Project Somaliland(2006)
  378. Somalia: EC Intervention Strategy and Policy Considerations for Education and Training (2006)
  379. WORLD BANK. Somalia: Online Distance Learning Initiative fact sheet. (2006)
  380. Harry Hare. ICT in Education in Somalia (2005)
  381. Cecile Kasekwe, Rigmor Karlsen, Arve Gunnestad, (ed). Integrated Education and Development Programme, Somaliland (2005)
  382. UNIVERSITY OF BURAO Business Plan (2005)
  383. Back to School Campaign: Somaliland girl pursues her dream of an education (2005)
  384. Tarbiyeynta Wanaagsan Hagaha waalidka (Somali) (2004)
  385. Feasibility Study on a Program for Strengthening Capacity Of Teacher Training in Somaliland and Puntland (2004)
  386. Novib. Arab Donor Policies and Practices on Education in Somalia/land (2004)
  387. John Tuckey. Education by Radio in Somalia (2003)
  388. Margaret Morumbasi. Somalia Education Sector Assessment: With special attention to Northwest Zone (2003)
  389. UNICEF. Education in Somalia: A New Dawn - An advocacy kit, 2003
  390. UNICEF. Koranic School Project(2002)
  391. Eric Eversmann. Education Kits in Somalia (2001)
  392. Samuel Bekalo. Post-Conflict Education Development in Somaliland (2001)
  393. A. Guleid. Preliminary Concept for a National Library of the Republic of Somaliland (2001)
  394. UNESCO. The EFA 2000 Assessment: Somalia Country Report (2000)
  395. Erasmus U. Morah. Old institutions, new opportunities: the emerging nature of Koranic schools in Somaliland in the 1990s (2000)
  396. Andrea Useem. In a breakaway region of war-torn Somalia, a new university takes root. (1999)
  397. Kingo Mchombu. Libraries, literacy and poverty reduction: a key to African development
  398. Distance Education examples from Namibia, Somalia & Peru
  399. Ali Abdi. Education in Somalia: History, destruction, and calls for reconstruction (1998)
  400. Somalia: Mid-decade Review of Prgress Toward Education for all(1996)
  401. Somalia: Strategies on Nomadic Education Delivery (1995)
  402. Rehabilitating Somalia's Education Sector - The Role of UNESCO (1994)
  403. Jo Bradley. Primary Education Needs in Somaliland (1993)


  405. Faiza Jama. Somali women and peacebuilding. (2010)
  406. Bamlaku Tadesse. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa and Gurgura clans of Somali in Eastern Ethiopia (2010)
  407. Building Peace in the Space of Civil Society: The Case of Somali Women (2010)
  408. Shelley Anderson. "My only clan is womanhood": Building Women's Peace Identities (2009)
  410. Edna Adan Maternity Hospital. Female Genital Mutilation (2009)
  411. Shukria Dini. Women Building Peace: Somali Women in Puntland and Somaliland (2009)
  413. Mohamoud Mohamed Aqli. Women In Somali Society (2009)
  414. Getnet Mitike and Wakgari Deressa. Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study (2009)
  415. Peter Hansen. Circumcising Migration: Gendering Return Migration among Somalilanders (2008)
  416. Liban Mohomoud Isse. Somaliland Women's Conference 2008 Report (2008)
  417. Ibrahim Suldan A/rahman. Narrative Report: Getting a solution for the Delay of women's education (2007)
  418. Hodan Said Isse. Women and Social Development (2007)
  419. Somaliland Women Challenge Islamic Roles (2006)
  420. Indrias Getachew. Fighting Female Genital Mulutation/Cutting In Ethiopia's Somali Region
  421. Maryam Sheikh Abdi. A Religious Oriented Approach to Addressing FGM/C among the Somali Community of Wajir, Kenya(2007)
  422. NAGAAD: Lamaane Magazine - First Issue - 2007
  423. Cawo Mohamed Abdi. Convergence of Civil War and the Religious Right: Reimagining Somali Women (2007)
  424. Caroline Simon. Engulfed in Mayhem (2007)
  425. Extract from Desert Flower by Waris Dirie
  426. Sexual Health among Young Somali Women in Sweden: Living With Conflicting Culturally Determined Sexual Ideologies
  428. Nyaradzai Gumbonzvanda & Hendrica Okondo. Gender and Women’s Rights in the Somalia Joint Needs Assessment (2005)
  429. International FGM Day 6th February 2005
  430. Somaliland women take on new roles(2005)
  431. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices of Female Genital Mutilation in Somaliland
  432. Robert Scott. A question of medical ethics from Somalia (2004)
  433. Mainstreaming Gender and Women’s Rights in the JNA Status Update (2004)
  434. Sara Johnsdotter, Birgitta EssTn. Sexual Health among Young Somali Women in Sweden: Living With Conflicting Culturally Determined Sexual Ideologies. (2004)
  435. Eradication of Female Genital Mutilation in Somalia
  436. Sumie Nakaya. Women and gender equality in peace processes:... in Guatemala and Somalia. (2003)
  437. Nagaad Annual Report 2003
  438. Somaliland: Situation of women, including women returnees (2003)
  439. Catherine Mattern. Canada: Female Genital Mutilation -- Workshop Manual (2002)
  440. UNICEF. Women's Rights in Islam and Somali Culture - A study, 2002
  441. Bouscher/Rosof. Culture Clash: Designing Vaginas, FGM, and Dutch Policy (2002)
  442. Harun Hassan. 'Not Housekeepers any more': Somali women of the diaspora (2002)
  443. Abdurahman M. Abdullahi (Baadiyow). Penetrating Cultural Frontiers in Somalia: History of Women’s Political Participation in Four Decades (1959-2000) (2001)
  444. Anne Adelson. Enough is enough! Voice of Somali Women for Peace, Reconciliation and Political Rights(2000)
  445. Hamdi Mohamed. Resistance strategies: Somali women's struggles to reconstruct their lives in Canada (1999)
  446. Sadia Ahmed. Islam and development: Opportunities and constraints for Somali women(1999)
  447. Medical Complications of Female Genital Mutilation (2001)
  448. Maisoun Badawi. The Culture And Tradition Of Women In Somalia
  449. Bryden and Steiner. Somalia Between Peace and War: Somali Women on the Eve of the 21st Century (1998)
  450. Somalia: the great escape(1995)
  451. Lidwien Kapteijns. Gender Relations and the Transformation of the Northern Somali Pastoral Tradition (1995)
  453. Ladan Affi. Arraweelo: A Role Model For Somali Women (1995)
  454. Kowser Omer-Hashi. No words can express: two voices on female genital mutilation (1994)


  455. E. Abdalla,et al. The need for a comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS in north-western Somalia: evidence from a seroprevalence survey. (2010)
  456. Abdi A Gele, Mette Sagbakken. Barriers to tuberculosis care: a qualitative study among Somali pastoralists in Ethiopia (2010)
  457. IRIN. Khat-chewing Contributes to Rise in Burao TB Patients(2010)
  458. R.M. Youssef & et al. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia (2010)
  459. By: Abdirahim Mohamed Ahmed. Seroprevalence of Cattle Brucellosis in Gabiley District, Somaliland (2009)
  460. Abdi A Gele, Gunnar Bjune, and Fekadu Abebe. Pastoralism and delay in diagnosis of TB in Ethiopia. (2009)
  462. Abdisalan M Noor. Health service providers in Somalia: their readiness to provide malaria case-management (2009)
  463. Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake. Consequences of Ongoing Civil Conflict in Somalia: Evidence for Public Health Responses (2009)
  464. Seter Siziya1 & et al. Antismoking messages and current cigarette smoking status in Somaliland: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2004 (2008)
  465. Abdisalan M Noor & et al. Health service providers in Somalia: their readiness to provide malaria case-management (2008)
  466. Abdisalan M. Noor & et al. The Use of Mosquito Nets and the Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Rural South Central Somalia (2008)
  467. Julie Mytton & et al. Vitamin D deficiency in multicultural primary care: a case series of 299 patients (2007)
  468. The Multi-Sectoral Approach tO AIDS Control in Somaliland(2007)
  469. WHO Hargeisa Monthly Report— Sep. 2007
  470. Diabetes Sonkorowgu Somali
  471. Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Somali ex-combatants: A validation study (2007)
  472. Somalia and Tuberculosis (2007)
  473. Update on the Somali HIV Response (2007)
  474. Working together to rebuild health care in post-conflict Somaliland(2006)
  475. Fighting TB in Somalia (2006)
  476. Evaluation of a Somali Oral Health Promotion Project
  477. A guide to childhood immunisations for babies up to 13 months of age.(SOMALI)
  478. Bare bone facts about Somalia - MSF(2006)
  479. WHO Somalia Report(2006)
  480. Competence of maternal and child health clinic workers in detecting malnutrition in Somalia (2005)
  481. Somaliland HIV/AIDS Newsletter (2005)
  482. Lianne Straus. Tobacco use among the Somali population in Islington (2005)
  483. Towards a concerted approach for Hygiene and Sanitation promotion in Somaliland (2005)
  484. Somalia : epidemiological fact sheets on HIV/AIDS and STDs (2004)
  485. Somaliland national disability forum (2004)
  486. Monica M Burns. Identification of Capacity Building Interventions for Local Health Authorities in Somalia (2004)
  487. Mahmooda Khaliq. Community Responses to HIV/AIDS: Focus Groups with Minnesota Somali Community Members (2004)
  488. Social Facilitation, Development and the Diaspora: Support for Sustainable Health Services in Somalia (2004)
  489. Sool Plateau of Sool & Sanag Regions Nutrition Survey(2004)
  490. Social Facilitation, Development and the Diaspora: Support for Sustainable Health Services in Somalia (2004)
  491. Somali Culture and Medical Traditions (2003)
  492. Tisha Wheeler. Somalia: HIV/AIDS Prevention, Advocacy & Communication Framework (2003)
  493. Sahil Region Somaliland Nutrition Survey (2003)
  494. Oral Health Beliefs, Traditions and Practices in the Somali Culture (2003)
  495. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication --- Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan (2003)
  496. Haud of Hargeisa-Balleygubadley & Salahley Nutrition Survey(2002)
  497. WHO. Polio Eradication in Somalia(2002)
  498. Back to sleep, tummy to play (Somali/English) Dhabarka u seexi, caloolasha u dhig wakhtiga ciyaarta (Somali) (2002)
  499. Heather Burke. Immunization and the Twin Cities Somali Community: Findings (2001)
  500. Stephanie Strong. Post-conflict mental health in Somallland
  501. UNICEF. Children's situation Analysis in Somaliland Health and Nutrition
  502. UNICEF Health and Nutrition Programmes in Somalia (2001)
  503. Report of a medical mission to Somaliland, 2001
  504. M Jama. Epidemics and Public Health in Late Colonial Somaliland (1999)
  505. Nutrition Survey Report Hargeisa Returnees(1995)
  506. Anne k La Fond. Qualitative methods for assessing the acceptability of immunisation in Somalia (1992)
  507. Bernhard Helander. Getting the Most out of it: Nomadic Health Care Seeking and the State in Southern Somalia(1990)
  508. Daphne Williams Ntiri. Female Education in Somalia: A survey to Assess the Situation and Needs of Women (1987)


  509. Lidwien Kapteijns. Review: Saa Waxay Tiri: Maansadii Iyo Waayihii Xaawa Jibriil. (And Then She Said: The Poetry and Times of Hawa Jibril) (2009)
  510. Mohamed-Rashiid Sheikh Hassan. Art and Literature: The Other Weapon for Resistance (2008)
  511. Georgi Kapchits. The relationship between men and women in the Somali narrative folklore (2008)
  512. Rebecca Miller. Poet Hero: Hadraawi, Beloved Peacemaker/Poet (2007)
  513. Ali Jimale Ahmed. The Somali Oral Tradition and the Role of Storytelling in Somalia
  514. Rahma Bavelaar. The Poetics of Displacement: Somali Oral Verse in Exile (2006)
  515. Maxamed Daahir Afrax. Rural Imagery in Contemporary Somali urban poetry... (2005)
  516. Maxamed Xaashi Dhamac 'Gaarriye'
  517. Zainab Mohamed Jama. Silent Voices: The Role of Somali Women’s Poetry in Social and Political Life
  518. Faysal Omar Mushteeg - Somaliland's Indisputable Male Vocalist (2003)
  519. Martin Orwin. Introduction to Somali Poetry
  520. Martin Orwin. Introduction to Somali Poetry (2002)
  521. Abdirahman Shunuuf. Abdi Aadan Xaad Qays (2002)
  522. Abdirahman Shunuuf. Mohamed Mooge Liibaan (2002)
  523. Lidwien Kapteijns. Laments about Labor Migration in Somali Love Songs (2001)
  524. Zainab Mohamed Jama. Silent Voices: The Role of Somali Women’s Poetry in Social and Political Life (1994)
  525. Tamela Hultman. Somalia: A Nation of Poets (1993)


  526. Mohamed Farah Hersi. Research Guide to the Somaliland Legal System (2009)
  527. UN Habitat. The Land Legal Framework Situation Analysis(2006)
  528. The Foreign Investments Law: Promotion, Protection and Guarantee of Investments
  529. Ibrahim Hashi Jama. Electoral law No 20- 2 /2005 (parliamentary law) (2005)
  530. Andre Le Sage. Stateless Justice in Somalia/Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives Report (2005)
  531. The Judicial System in Somaliand (2002)
  532. General Election Law No. 20/2001
  533. The evolution and integration of different legal systems in the Horn of Africa: the case of Somaliland.(2001)
  534. The Revised Constitution of Republic of Somaliland (2001)

  535. Zach Baxter. Somalia's Coal Industry (2007)
  536. Somalia: Solar Cooking (2006)
  537. Country Environmental Profile for Somalia (2006)
  538. Mohamoud Awsalawaad. A Substitute Green Fuel Is discovered In Somaliland (2005)
  539. Marc Lacey. Mogadishu Journal; To Fuel the Mideast's Grills, Somalia Smolders (2002)
  540. Abdullahi Elmi Mohamed. Somalia's Degrading Environment (2002)
  541. Sool Region Water Project (2002)
  542. Eisa Ulen. Somalia's Queen of Green(2002)
  543. Christian Webersik. Reinterpreting Environmental Scarcity and Conflict: Evidence from Somalia (2001)
  544. Gill Shepherd. The reality of Commons: Answering Hardin from Somalia (1988)


  545. FSNAU. 2010 Post Gu Analysis (Northwest region) (2010)
  546. B. Sagnia. A Strategy for Cutural Rehabilitation & Development: Suggestions for Somalia (2007)
  547. Somaliland: The Landmine Problem(2006)
  548. Landmine Impact Survey: Awdal, Galbeed, Sahil and Togdheer Regions (2006)
  549. HPG. Humanitarian action in the new security environment:... in Somalia and Somaliland (2006)
  550. Abdi Abby. Internally Displaced Minorities in Somalia and Somaliland (2005)
  551. Somaliland: Land Mine Monitor Report 2005
  552. Ocha. Overview of Humanitarian Environment in Somaliland(2005)
  553. Emergency Food Aid Distribution Project in Togdheer, Somaliland (2004)
  554. A case study on Somaliland, in the framework of the WDR project, (2003)
  555. Julian Gough. The Great Hargeisa Goat Bubble (2003)
  556. Somalia: Looking after the unwanted
  557. R.Marchal. Globalization and its impact on Somalia (2000)
  558. Diana Briton Putman & Mohamood Cabdi Noor. The Somalis: Their History and Culture (1993)
  559. Metz, H.C. Somalia: History (1992)

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  1. Matt Bryden. The "Banana Test" : is Somaliland ready for recognition ? (2003)
  2. Catherine L. Besteman. Genocide in Somalia’s Jubba Valley and Somali Bantu Refugees in the U.S.
  3. Peter T. Leeson. Better Off Stateless: Somalia Before and After Government Collapse
  4. World Bank. Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics (2004)
  5. Somalia Sector Assessment: With special attention to Northwest Zone (2003)
  6. Alex de Waal. Class and Power in a Stateless Somalia (1996)