Oxfam Netherlands
and World Association of Muslim Youth
Supported by the EC Somalia Operations
September 2004


AMA Africa Muslim Agency
CEC Community Education Committee
EHA Education for All
FPENS Formal Private Education Network in Somalia
GER Gross Enrolment Ratio
IDB Islamic Development Bank
IDPs Internally Displaced Persons
INGO International Non-Governmental Organisation
IAS International Aid Sweden
LNGO Local Non-Governmental Organisation
NGO Non-Governmental Organisation
OIC Organisation of Islamic Conference
SACB Somali Aid Coordination Body
TNG Transitional National Government
USC United Somali Congress
UN United Nations
UNESCO United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNOSOM United Nations Operation in Somalia
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
WAMY World Assembly of Muslim Youth


The research and writing of this report was led by Abdullahi I. Mohamed. Mr Jamaal Barrow of WAMY Somalia provided considerable support. The assistance of all the enumerators and support staff at WAMY is deeply appreciated. Thank you to all the organisations that participated in this study. This report was produced by Novib and WAMY. These views have not been adopted or in any way approved by the European Commission and should not be relied upon as a statement of the European Commission’s or its services. The European Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this report, nor does it accept responsibility for any use made thereof.

Executive Summary

This study is a collaborative initiative between NOVIB and WAMY Somalia to review the existing Arab donor policies and practices regarding education in Somalia/land. It is hoped that this will contribute to the objective of developing trust and mutual knowledge between Western and Arab organisations. Due to problems of access, early in the study it became clear that the policies and practices of Arab donors would be represented from the point of view of the recipients in Somalia/land. 28 Arab-supported organisations were interviewed in the course of the study and completed a questionnaire (see Annex I). Additional interviews were conducted with representatives of the administrations, local authorities on education, some Western organisations and parents of pupils.

Provision of primary education has steadily grown since 1997 in Somalia/land.1 While only 17% of children have access to formal education, this represents an enormous improvement from an estimated 9% in 1997.2 Almost all schools in Somalia/land are privately run and a large part of the growth in education since 1997 has been due to Arab support.

Arab assistance to Somalia/land takes several forms: official governmental donors; international NGOs (or Islamic charities) registered in one of the member states of the Arab League; Arab-based multi-lateral institutions; local Somali NGOs that receive support from organisations based in Arab countries.

Official government assistance is primarily in the form of scholarships to the country’s own universities. Several hundred Somali students have benefited from these scholarships in the last few years. Egypt and Sudan are the main providers of scholarships.

Six of the organisations interviewed were branches of Arab-based international NGOs. Five of these organisations were headed by Somali nationals (the other was in a process of handover) and they felt this was significant to their success. The main Arab-based multilateral donor is the Islamic Development Bank. Due to the civil war, Somalia/land has special status with the bank. The bank has stringent, written funding conditions and formal monitoring. The Bank makes one-off capital payments. Major contributions in Somalia/land include support for several teacher training institutes in Puntland and Mogadishu University.

While there are not uniform policies or practices among Arab donors, certain characteristics are noticeable. Over 70% of organisations stated that following application and evaluation, they had autonomy to manage funds dispersed until completion of the project. This was felt to be based on trust and in contrast to the demanding monitoring requirements of Western organisations.

1 UNICEF, ‘Survey of Primary Schools in Somalia’ – various years 2 UNICEF, ‘Survey of Primary Schools in Somalia 2002/3’ The majority of Arab donors appeared to prefer one-off investments in projects. Sustainability was therefore a key criterion for selection of projects. Organisations that do receive ongoing contributions receive core funding only for the salaries of the school heads, teacher salaries must be met from locally generated funds, primarily fees. There is an emphasis on community management of schools in this sector and community involvement was also a key selection criterion for funding.

The majority of the schools (22 of 28) used the FPENS unified curriculum and Arabic as the language of instruction. Arabic is felt to be more familiar and more relevant to Somali children than English. The majority of parents of children attending these schools preferred Arabic.

Most of the schools were aware of the issues affecting girls’ access to education. On average schools had intakes of roughly 30% girls, somewhat lower than comparable Western-supported schools. However, a striking finding was the greater success of Arab-supported schools in retaining female students. More girls completed primary school in Arab-supported schools than Western-backed schools. The unified curriculum, examination system and certification at the end of primary school were thought to be possible reasons for this.

Overall the Arab-backed organisations were enthusiastic to work more closely with their Western counterparts although they perceived Western organisations as having a distrustful attitude towards them. Western organisations were lacking knowledge on their Arab counterparts. Suggestions to address this are made in the recommendations section of this report.


In Somalia/land only 17 percent of children attend school. Tackling this education gap is crucial to the development of a peaceful Somalia/land. Western donors support a considerable number of schools in Somalia/land, yet the majority of financial support to education in Somalia/land is provided by Arab donors, primarily by Arab governments and Islamic charities, either operating schools themselves or providing funding to Somali education NGOs. Thus far there has been little coordination between these two donor groups. Western agencies and donors know little about their Arab counterparts. This study was developed in order to address this knowledge gap and to promote trust and understanding between these two donor groups with the purpose of enhancing the delivery of education to the children of Somalia/land.3

1.1 Objectives and scope of study

The objective of this study was to review the funding patterns (policies and practices) of Arab donors in Somali education, with particular consideration of gender. Specifically the study seeks to:
- Review available Arab donor policies and practices on education;
- Establish the current status of education funded by Arab donors in Somalia/land, in terms of access, retention, quality and learning achievements;
- Identify and recommend strategies to increase cooperation between Arab and Western donor organisations involved in the education sector in Somalia/land.

Twenty-eight organisations were interviewed for the study, including both recipient and donor organisations. These organisations are located in different regions of Somalia/land and cover all levels of education including primary, secondary, tertiary and non-formal. Twelve of the organisations directly run schools in various parts of the country. Representatives of international organisations, including United Nations agencies and some Western INGOs concerned with education and present in Somalia/land, were interviewed in Mogadishu and Nairobi. Representatives of Somali administrations and authorities were also interviewed.

1.2 Methodology

Data was gathered from various sources using a combination of methodologies including review of the available literature, interviews, group discussions and observations. Three groups were interviewed; heads of organisations, school administrators and parents. Organisations were identified following preliminary visits to three major organisations, Africa Muslims Agency, World Assembly of Muslim Youth and FPENS, who were able to provide general information on the organisations involved in the education sector in Somalia/land. They also provided names and physical locations of the schools and organisations.

3 Novib Somalia undertook and published a study entitled ‘Donor Policies and Practices towards Somalia and Somaliland’ in 2002, this study focused on western donors and included information on their education policies and practices. During interviews a questionnaire was administered (see Annex I). In addition to responding to the questionnaire, many organisations were willing to provide more indepth material. This is taken into account in drawing the conclusions of this study. Year-on-year enrolment data from various schools was collected by a team of enumerators and then aggregated and analysed.

The report does not seek to provide conclusive data on the condition or quality of education in all parts of the country. Data obtained from the named organisations was crosschecked with information held by FPENS, the umbrella organisation coordinating many of the schools concerned. The research was conducted in March and April 2004.

Figure 1: List of organisations interviewed

Name of Organisation Type Country HQ No of No. of Students
of Origin In Somalia Schools 2002 2003

Africa Muslims Agency International Kuwait Mogadishu 9 6583 6884
Imam Shafi'I Foundation Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 5 4122 4065
Welfare Project Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 3 1094 1430
Crescent Welfare Society Schools International UAE Mogadishu 6 4550 6405
Islamic Welfare Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 8 2274 2732
Zam Zam Foundation Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 6 2676 3278
Africa Relief Committee International Kuwait Mogadishu 5 2167 2165
Bilaal Society Welfare Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 6 1653 2179
Munadama Dawa International. Sudan Mogadishu 4 1862 3067
Alwafa Welfare Society Local Somaliland Borama 3 1480 1934
World Assembly of Muslim Youth International. Saudia Mogadishu 2 3029 5244
Tadamun Social Society Local Puntland Bosaso 3 1053 1560
Tawfiiq Society Project Local Somalia (SC) Kismayu 2 397 465
Islamic Relief Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 259 209
Awdal Society Local Somaliland Borama 1 1674 2166
Tawakal Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 594 443
Jibril Foundation Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 404 444
Al-Ihsan Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 2 1010 1003
Abu-Bakar Sidiiq Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 2 493 447
Al-Mashriq Population Future Sty. Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 351 383
Zaid Bin thabit Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 594 537
Umuruman Society Girls’ School Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 160 191
Al- Imama Nawawi Schools Local Puntland Bosaso 1 2705 3044
Juba Society Local Somalia (SC) Mogadishu 1 279 346
Fathi Rahman Society Local Somalia (SC) Baidoa 2 525 751
Inter. Islamic Relief (Iqatha) Org. International Saudia Mogadishu 2 3168 4510
Somali Society Local Puntland Bosaso 2 2011 3998
Hunain Society Local Somalia (SC) Baidoa 3 519 654
Total 84 47686 60534

1.3 Challenges and Constraints

The purpose of this study was to inquire into the policies and practices of governmental donors from Arab countries with regard to their support of the education sector in Somalia/land. The initial intention was to interview these governments, through their Nairobi embassies. However, following visits to the Kuwait and Saudi embassies, it became clear that there are not direct arrangements between many of these countries and Somalia/land at governmental level, rather their assistance, especially in the education sector, is conducted through NGOs working in the country. Consequently the research focus was redirected to the recipient agencies of Arab or Islamic donations to Somalia/land. In doing so the research team made two assumptions: firstly, that the policies and practices of the Arab donors can be assumed to be the same ones as the policies and practices under which the recipient organisations were funded; secondly, that the recipient organisations of the Arab donor funds actually know the policies and practices of their donors. The report therefore provides the policies and practices of Arab donors from the point of view of the receiving organisations in Somalia/land.

The team faced two serious challenges while conducting this study. Firstly, security was an issue of particular concern during the research phase of this study following recent attacks on aid workers in Somaliland. Secondly, the movement of the team was constrained by the Kenya government ban on visas for Somali passport holders, resulting in some delays.

1.4 Terminology

During the research, some confusion was caused by the use of the term ‘Arab donors’ in the study title. The initial intention of the study was to look at the funding provided by the governments of Arab countries, however, due to the constraints outlined above, the scope of the study changed to focus upon Islamic charities (local and international) and Somali NGOs that have links with charities based in Islamic or Arab countries. Despite this change in emphasis the research team agreed to retain the original wording of the title as it was felt that the response to the use of this term was interesting in itself and as the majority of the funding received by the Islamic charities and NGOs concerned does in fact originate in Arab countries. The retention of the term in this context is not meant to imply that ‘Arab’ and ‘Islam’ are synonymous. The term Somalia/land is used to refer to the whole former territory of Somalia, which incorporated Somaliland. Somaliland and Puntland are used when referring specifically to those entities. Somalia is used when referring to the pre-1991 territory or in today’s context to the south and central regions.


2.1 Historical overview of Somalia/land education

Comprehensive education in Somalia/land has faced a series of historical challenges. At independence there was no unified school system and only twelve secondary schools in the entire country. The newly independent government made education a priority, integrating and expanding primary and secondary education and establishing a national university. An intensive rural development and literacy campaign was initiated in 1973 to 1975. After independence Somali was adopted as the official language and the language of instruction in schools up to secondary level. Arabic was taught from Grade 1 and English from Grade 9 as second and third languages. English was the language of instruction in technical schools and was used alongside Italian and Arabic at the university. Literacy rates reached their highest levels in 1980, up from twelve percent in 1970, to almost fifty percent (49% male and 51% female) of the population aged 15 years and above.

In 1982 policy changed to refocus the education system on the advancement of vocational training in the name of increasing employability. The system was based on literacy skills for social development to meet national demands for skilled manpower and to promote science and culture. However, this change was effected simultaneously with a sharp fall in budgetary allocation to education, down from 11.2% of the national budget in 1974 to 2% in 1982.

The education system was already virtually collapsing when the government of Siad Barre fell in 1991, yet, as insecurity engulfed much of the country, students and teachers abandoned their classes. In the first two years of the civil war there was a total collapse of the education system as students and teachers were displaced, schools were destroyed and looted, or taken over by IDPs. Hundreds of thousands of children completely missed out on education during this period, many becoming refugees and some forced to join the armed militia groups.

Conditions improved somewhat in 1993 with the arrival of United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM). Some schools were reopened and others rehabilitated by UN and international organisations. Some of these re-closed with the withdrawal of UNOSOM in 1995. In 1995 private schools run by Somali NGOs and Islamic charities began to emerge. Public schools had mostly been destroyed by the ongoing civil war. Insecurity, lawlessness and occupation of school facilities by militia and IDPs continued to cause problems for the reestablishment of schools. Yet, in spite of these difficulties, the education sector has seen a remarkable expansion since 1996.

2.2 Current state of education in Somalia/land

According to the periodic data compiled by UNICEF, provision of primary education has steadily grown since 1997 in Somalia/land. While currently only about 17% of Somali children aged 6-14 years have access to formal education, this represents an enormous improvement from an estimated 9% in 1997.4 This represents a boom in private provision of education in Somalia/land, with individuals, companies, community groups and NGOs having opened schools in the country. In general, urban centres are well served by primary, secondary and higher learning institutions, with the largest concentration of these institutions found in Mogadishu. School enrolments are lowest in rural areas where provision is often poor and patchy.

4 UNICEF ‘Survey of Primary Schools in Somalia 2002/3’. It should be noted that some Somali authorities, notably the TNG, feel that the UNICEF figure of 17% primary school enrolment is an overstatement and that the actual percentage is closer to 10-12%. Irrespective of the form of ownership, schools in Somalia/land charge fees ranging from US$2-10 a month. This includes NGO-supported schools (Islamic or Western). Teachers and administrators’ salaries are recovered primarily from fees collected. Most schools do not pay salaries to teachers during school holidays. A small number of schools, particularly NGO-supported schools, pay incentives to improve retention of teachers during holidays.


3.1 Types of Arab donor organisations in Somalia/land

Arab assistance to Somalia/land takes several forms:
- Official governmental donors;
- International NGOs (or Islamic charities) registered in one of the member states of the Arab League;
- Arab-based multilateral institutions;
- Local Somali NGOs that receive support from organisations based in Arab countries.

3.1.1 Governmental Donors

Among the Arab donors in the education sector are some governments that maintain consular presence in Somalia/land. These include Egypt, Libya and, on a temporary basis, Sudan. Egypt has been a consistent supporter of the education sector in Somalia. Under the previous government, Egypt sent hundreds of teachers to secondary schools and colleges in Somalia. Since the collapse of the state, Egyptian support to education has continued in a different form. Egypt currently provides scholarships for approximately one hundred high school graduates to universities in Egypt.5 The Egyptian consular representative annually conducts interviews with high school graduates in Mogadishu to select the students. Those selected also have their living expenses in Egypt covered.

Sudan has also provided some scholarships to Somali students. Since 1999, 261 graduates of FPENS member schools have received scholarships from different Arab countries, mostly Egypt and Sudan. These students have mainly studied education, law, medicine and computer studies, a breakdown of their subjects is provided below.

Figure 2: Subjects chosen by FPENS students granted scholarships to Egyptian and Sudanese universities between 1999-2002

Faculties          No.
Education          74
Law                37
Engineering        17
Medicine           28
Business Studies   18
Agriculture        18
Computer Studies   37
Sciences           21
Veterinary Medicine6
Pharmacology       2
Islamic studies    2
Total              261
5 Interview with Mr Tooxow, Secretary General of FPENS, Mogadishu, March 2004.

The government of Libya also provides direct assistance to Somalia, primarily through financial and institutional support to the TNG, particularly its security apparatus. There is no evidence of involvement in the education sector.

3.1.2 NGOs from Arab countries in Somalia/land

Of the twenty-eight organisations interviewed for this report, six identified themselves as international organisations (the remaining 22 described themselves as local NGOs).

The six international organisations and their headquarters are as follows:

1. Africa Muslims Agency (AMA), Kuwait.
2. African Relief Committee (ARC), Kuwait.
3. World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), Saudi Arabia.
4. International Islamic Relief Organisation, Saudi Arabia.
5. Red Crescent Society, United Arab Emirates (UAE).
6. Munadama al Dawa, Sudan.
These organisations have varying degrees of involvement with the parent organisation abroad. With the exception of Munadama al Dawa, Somali nationals head the organisations’ Somali branches. The head of Munadama was Sudanese but it was anticipated that the post would shortly be handed-over to a Somali. All of the above are the others are international NGOs registered in Arab countries.

3.1.3 Arab-based multilateral institutions

A third type of Arab-based international organisations are the multilateral institutions such as the Islamic Development Bank (IDB), which provides interest free loans for capital investments to lower income members of the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC). These are primarily infrastructure or social development projects, including the construction of hospitals, schools and colleges. Traditionally the IDB is concerned with the development needs of Muslim communities in countries where they are a minority. The bank provides only capital investment funds and does not implement projects directly. Several war-torn countries, including Somalia and Afghanistan, receive special financial support, even though they are predominantly Muslim countries. Funds from the bank have been used to build several health and technical training institutes in Somalia/land, including Mogadishu University.

3.1.4 Somali local NGOs

In the absence of a central state, local civil society organisations in Somalia have proliferated, standing in to provide essential services and forums for representation. Local NGOs vary enormously in size and experience and are operational in many different sectors. Local NGOs have played an important role in the education sector and are responsible for much of the education provision in Somalia/land. 6 These groups interact with others on a wide range of activities, including relations with charities or INGOs based in Arab countries, non-Arab countries and UN bodies. While a few of these groups have effective local fundraising mechanisms, in the resource-poor environment of Somalia/land many of these organisations are dependent on funding from abroad; through the diaspora or through relationships with larger, foreign organisations.

Relations between Somali NGOs and Western donors are constrained by the lack of a legal system in Somalia. This leaves NGOs unable to register in Somalia (some do in Dubai or other countries) and therefore unable to meet a key Western donor requirement for legitimacy. Arab donors tend not to require such a level of ‘paper’ validation. Many LNGOs interact with charities or individual philanthropists based in Arab countries. Advantages for Somali NGOs in dealing with Arab donors, in addition to less formal legal and monitoring requirements, include ease of communication in Arabic, socio-cultural, educational and economic links and religious affiliation.

3.2 Funding policies of Arab donors

There is no uniform policy for funding projects in Somalia/land among the Arab/Islamic donor organisations. Among the organisations interviewed, older organisations and international organisations tend to understand the policies of their donors more than younger or local organisations. Some donors provided a list of criteria for funding. Policies varied according to the kind of funding; conditions for dispersal of Zakat funds were different to those provided for programme support. The predominant reasons for funding projects in Somalia/land given by Arab donors (both individuals and organisations) were humanitarian and socio-cultural.

Funds from individual or organisational donors are given to the Somali organisations on a project-by-project basis after a process of application and evaluation has been completed and a contract agreed. Seventy percent of the organisations interviewed stated that once funds had been received for a particular project they were given autonomy in the management of those funds until completion of the project. All organisations reported that the only funds they receive from the parent organisation on a regular basis, if any, are the salaries of the head of the organisation in Somalia and his/her assistants. Junior administration officers and other support staff do not receive salaries from the parent organisation. Their salaries are paid out of the projects they are attached to or from income generated from other sources such as school fees. 6 For more information on Somali civil society organisations, see Novib Somalia, ‘Mapping Somali Civil Society’ and ‘Directory of Somali Civil Society Organisations’, Nairobi 2003. Also available at

All the international NGOs said there was no specific policy by the parent organisation that they were required to follow in order to receive funds. As long as the Somalia/land-based branch was thought to be trustworthy and could account for the funds on completion of the project, funding would be received. Common donor funding criteria include that the organisation must be an operational charity, recognised by the Somali community in the area where the charity works, with ongoing projects. Recommendation letters from local leaders or details of current projects in the area could be required as evidence. Another important factor is sustainability. Organisations are often required to demonstrate how they plan to achieve sustainability. All charities said sustainability was the most important consideration for most donors. Several interviewees stated that donors in the Arab world do not like to engage in long-term commitments to pay recurrent costs. Projects that are one-time capital investments and that can pay for future running costs are preferred. In the education sector, donors usually require the recipient to prove that it is focused upon or specialised in education. Local charities may also be required to demonstrate proper use of any previous funds received, which can be illustrated by video recordings of project events, photographs, financial statements or by visits by the donors to the project.

Waqf projects (public utilities or services which individuals contribute as a religious gift to the needy), such as construction of mosques, wells, dams or sanitation, or distribution of Zakat (the compulsory tax on all Muslims to give 2.5 percent of their wealth to charity annually), may have different funding conditions. For example, an individual donor may like to name the mosque or school after a deceased loved one. For these kinds of projects, the donor may require more personal involvement such as to be invited on completion and to participate in the opening ceremonies. Other donors prefer to be provided with photographs or video recordings of the projects funded.

Eighty percent of the organisations interviewed were funded by more than one donor. Different organisations or people often sponsored different facilities in the school. For example, one would agree to fund construction of several classrooms, another would contribute funds for offices, another the borehole construction and so on. Some recipients viewed this as an advantage. One school head said, “the fact that we get many little contributions from different donors means it is difficult for any one donor to impose their conditions on us, this gives us the independence and autonomy to manage our own affairs”. Many Somali charities do not prepare annual reports to the Arab donor organisations. However, most of them do prepare reports for their internal structures such as committees and boards of governors.

An explanation of a typical school project funded by an Arab-based organisation and implemented by their local branch in Somalia (Africa Muslims Agency) is outlined below. “The school started with 8 classrooms, an office block and three toilets in 1996, all paid for by one donor based in Kuwait who wanted to help a school project in memory of his deceased mother - a teacher. The individual approached the AMA office in Kuwait to find him a suitable location for a school to support; they in turn asked the AMA office in Somalia to locate a suitable beneficiary. AMA Somalia usually has many applications from communities and other charities requesting sponsorship of their projects. So when we get news from our Kuwait office that someone wants to support a project in Somalia, we simply decide on the most deserving application and put up the project. This school was born in that manner. In Somalia today you depend on communities to guarantee the protection and security of any facility you put up. So we made it clear to the beneficiary community well in advance of the committing ourselves to them that they must guarantee the protection and security of the project. If it’s a school, we recruit the teaching and support staff initially and monitor its smooth running for the first 3-5 years. Most our schools have achieved 100% self-sufficiency within this period. Once the school has achieved selfsufficiency, AMA’s role is limited to one of periodic supervision, receiving progress reports and maybe participating in the school’s board meetings.” 7

Funding from multilateral organisations, such as the Islamic Development Bank (IDB), is subject to different conditions. The IDB’s funding comes from the members of the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) and is provided to facilitate development projects in lower-income member countries or to support projects in countries where Muslims are a minority. Since the civil war, Somalia qualifies for special assistance from the Bank, which provides particular support to war-torn countries. This kind of funding entails a one-off capital investment, often for infrastructure or equipment. The bank does not cover on-going costs.

Several schools in Somalia/land have benefited from IDB funding for classroom construction or buying learning equipment, such as computers or textbooks. A particular contribution the bank has made to Somalia is the partial financing of the construction and equipping of several vocational and teacher training colleges in Puntland in 1994-5. These colleges include Abuud Waaq Institute, Galkcayo Vocational Institute, Garowe Vocational Institute, Qardho Institute for Teachers, Burtinle Institute for Teachers and Bosasso Vocational Institute. On completion of the project, ownership is fully conferred to the Somali beneficiary.

The IDB has its own ‘Policies and Procedures for Financing Operations’ which states that ‘the bank will take necessary measures to ensure that the funds made available by the bank to a project/enterprise are exclusively used for the purpose for which they were provided. Such measures would involve specific stipulation in the legal documents to this effect, approval of specifications and tender documents’. Disbursement is made on the basis of approved tender documents. Occasional review missions are dispatched to check the progress of the project. Payments are made only to meet or cover approved expenditure actually incurred or are payable, supported by adequate documentation, in accordance with the provision of loan agreement. In contrast to many of the Islamic charities, the Bank requires strict adherence to written procedures.

3.3 Locally Generated Funds

Virtually all schools in Somalia/land are privately owned. Those managed by charities (local and international) aim to achieve self-sufficiency and then generate funds for expansion. Charging fees is the primary way of generating funds. Fees range from US$2-10 per month in primary schools and $10-15 in secondary schools. Many of the Arab-funded schools have achieved a remarkable level of self-sufficiency and are expanding their schools and enrolments. The level of annual budgetary contribution from parent organisations to branches in Somalia/land ranged from ten to forty percent, with the balance being raised from students’ fees or income-generating projects.

7 Interview with Mr. Abdikarim Hussein, Deputy Director, AMA Somalia, Mogadishu, March 2004. 3.4 Ownership and management of schools

All organisations stated that community participation and ownership of schools was crucial for ensuring protection and continuity of projects, especially in insecure regions. In the south central regions organisations commonly follow the model of creating partnership with the community through the establishment of Community Education Committees (CEC). All 28 organisations said they chose school committees, teachers and support staff from the locality of the schools.

3.5 Education system

Learning systems in Somalia/land can be classified as informal, such as community systems or Quranic schools, and formal, including primary, secondary and tertiary education. None of the charities interviewed provided single-subject schools, such as religious schools (Madarasa) or language schools. All organisations interviewed run formal schools of varying sizes, enrolment levels and resource endowment.

3.6 Curriculum and language of instruction

The choice of curriculum among the organisations varies. 22 out of the organisations interviewed used a curriculum determined by the umbrella organisation FPENS, that consists of a combination of the old Somalia syllabus, syllabuses from Middle Eastern countries and neighbours such as Kenya and Djibouti. The system involves six years of primary education, three years of secondary and three years in high school, in total 12 years of schooling. Learning materials and textbooks are obtained from various sources, mainly from the Middle East and neighbouring countries, supplemented by supplies from UNESCO. In Somaliland the administration has determined the system of education as 8-4-4, also adding up to 12 years of schooling.

In addition to providing the outline syllabus, FPENS also aims to strengthen the content covered under each subject for each class (school year) to ensure students receive an education comparable to students in any part of the world: “When our students wish to join institutions in other countries, their level of competence in each school subject is up to standard. We also wish to harmonise the curriculum and the content of each subject to be consistent with a national policy but the reality is that each of the three regions of Somalia are trying to develop their own policy. We are trying to arrange a national conference where the issue of the curriculum, the content and certification procedures can be unified across the country but this task can only be done by a well resourced organisation, which we are not. At the present time we are concentrating mainly on strengthening the subject contents.” 8 The schedule below illustrates the teaching requirements for FPENS member schools.

There is a monitoring committee that checks and reports compliance with these schedules thus ensuring standards within FPENS member schools. The schools have 5 teaching days and 6 contact hours per class per day, giving a total of 30 teaching hours per week. 8 Interview with Mr Tooxow, Secretary General, FPENS, Mogadishu, 11 March 2004.

Figure 3: FPENS subject teaching requirements for member schools
Classes (School Yrs)
Arabic Islamic Maths Sciences Social Studies English Somalia Arts Physical education  Total
Class 1 12 8 6 0 0 0 0 1 3 30
Class 2 12 8 6 0 0 0 0 1 3 30
Class 3 10 6 6 3 0 0 2 3 30
Class 4 8 6 6 3 3 0 2 2 30
Class 5 6 6 5 3 3 3 2 2 30
Class 6 6 6 5 3 3 3 2 2 30
Class 7 6 6 5 3 3 3 2 2 30
Class 8 6 6 5 3 3 3 2 2 30
Class 9 6 6 6 3 3 3 2 1 30
The language of instruction in these schools is Arabic, hence the initial heavy time allocation. English language is taught as a subject and is introduced from year four. FPENS cite two main considerations for not introducing English teaching earlier. Firstly, it is widely accepted that children learn to read and acquire skills more quickly when they are taught in their first language for the first few years of schooling. Introducing a new language at this stage can retard children’s learning by over 30%.9 Although Arabic is not the first language of Somali children, it is the first language they learn to read and write in the Dugsi (Quranic school).

Over 95 percent of 4 to 6 year olds will have attended Dugsi before being taken to formal schools. School heads contend that over 75 percent of children can read and write Arabic script when they first join formal schools in Somalia/land. Secondly, Arabic was felt to be a more useful language for Somali children than English. In interviews language of instruction emerged as a contentious issue due to the perception that UN and Western organisations show preference for schools in which the language of instruction is English. Several of the school managers stated that they had been encouraged to introduce English as the language of instruction by Western organisations. There is also a perception among Western NGOs that if a school’s language of instruction is Arabic then the school is an Islamic one. This is denied by school heads, who, whilst acknowledging the importance of English, contend that Arabic and Somali languages precede it in importance for the Somali child.10

To explore this issue further 100 parents were interviewed. These parents were selected at the gates of eight schools in Mogadishu. They were mainly parents of older children, aged 13-18. We asked them to state their preferred language of instruction for their child. A majority preferred Arabic, although a significant percentage preferred English. These responses may reflect that these were parents who had already chosen to send their child to schools teaching in Arabic. See Figures 4 and 5 below.

9 Watkins, Kevin, The Oxfam Education Report, p.118, Oxfam, 2002. 10 Numerous interviews, including with Professor A. Suleiman, President of Amoud University. 3.7 Gender parity in Arab-funded schools

Access, quality and retention for both sexes are issues of particular concern in education in Somalia/land. Access to education in Somalia/land is differentiated for pupils in urban and rural areas, in different socio-economic groups, in areas of varying security and by availability of schools. However, across all these factors, gender is a key differentiating feature, with boys receiving much better access to education than girls. Data from various sources indicates that only one third of primary school children are girls. The percentage of female students in secondary or higher institutions is estimated at 10 and 1 percent respectively. Gender disparity grows as students progress to higher grades. Commonly cited reasons for this disparity include cultural traditions, economic necessities, discouraging physical environments of schools and lack of appropriate understanding among education providers on the promotion of girl-child education.

There is a high level of awareness on the issue of girls’ education among the organisations interviewed. Most schools are aware of this as a Western donor priority. Yet, only a handful of schools had actually taken action to address issues that inhibit girls’ access to education. Reasons given by schools that had not acted included lack of expertise and resources or the prevailing lawlessness in the country, which Choices of language of instruction discourages schools from touching issues that are culturally sensitive. All schools interviewed stated that they would welcome support to address the problem. Data from FPENS schools for the period 1998-2003 shows that the average annual intake of girls is about 33%, with a marginal increase from 32.8 % in 1998/99 to 34% in 2002/2003. See figure 6 below.

Figure 6: Girls and boys enrolled in FPENS member schools 1998-2003
Years Boys Girls Total % Girls % Boys
1998/1999 16377 7989 24366 32.8 67.2
1999/2000 16243 8961 25204 35.6 64.4
2000/2001 25322 12720 38042 33.4 66.6
2001/2002 34163 17215 51378 33.5 66.5
2002/2003 40362 20805 61167 34.0 66.0
In order to assess girls’ access and retention levels among Arab-supported schools in Somalia/land, schools were asked whether the organisation had any specific policy for advancing girl-child education. Ninety percent did not have a specific statement or written policy, although several stated that they had an ‘equal opportunity policy’ and that greater leniency and consideration in matters of discipline, absenteeism and fees were given where girls were concerned. Some schools were for boys only, especially those attached to orphanages.11 There is one girls-only school run by the Umuruman Society, based in Mogadishu. Reasons given on why there were fewer facilities for girls included:
- Somali cultural practice that requires girls to work in the home;
- Parental fear about entrusting their daughters to the care of others;
- A perception that girls are more expensive to care for and maintain than boys;
- General insecurity and the presence of militia, which makes the care of girls a riskier undertaking for organisations due to widespread rape and kidnapping. The following are some of the most frequently cited reasons for girls dropping out of school:
- Traditional culture that views boys education as an investment and girls education as a liability;12
- Early marriage;
- Unsuitable physical school environment, including poor sanitary conditions;
- Lack of women role-models;
- Economic pressure at home requiring girls to seek employment. 11 Somali orphanages are boarding facilities with accommodation, food and sometimes with schools. Orphans are understood in the Somali context as children below the age of 15 years whose fathers or both parents have died. Orphans do not include children who have lost their mother only or who are over 15 years of age. To further examine this issue and to look at comparisons between Arab and Westernfunded schools, six schools were selected from a list of over 100 schools, 84 of which are supported by Arab organisations and 16 run by Western NGOs (International Aid Sweden (IAS) and Concern; together, these two organisations run 26 schools in Somalia/land). Three Arab-supported schools and three Western-supported schools were chosen and their enrolment data and retention rates compared. The graphs below are in pairs of two schools, one Arab-supported, one Western-supported, in similar settings.

12 Organisations were keen to explain that this view of educating girls, as of no use to the family, is deep-rooted and that while they obviously do not agree with it, they are incapable of doing anything about it at the present time due to lack of expertise and resources. Year 2001/2002

Boys Girls Total % Boys % Girls
Class 1 80 55 135 59.3 40.7
Class 2 70 55 125 56.0 44.0
Class 3 90 43 133 67.7 32.3
Class 4 94 67 161 58.4 41.6
Class 5 47 22 69 68.1 31.9
Class 6 29 25 54 53.7 46.3
Class 7 60 40 100 60.0 40.0
Class 8 40 40 80 50.0 50.0
Class 9 36 45 81 44.4 55.6
Class 10 299 9 308 97.1 2.9
Class 11 231 4 235 98.3 1.7
Class 12 153 4 157 97.5 2.5
Totals 1229 409 1638 67.5 32.5

The two graphs above illustrate a well-known problem of educating girls, specifically the high drop out rate, increasing with each progressive year. Al-Nahda school’s year 1 is made up of 40% girls, this gender balance holds relatively steady until year 10 when there is a sudden and dramatic reduction in the number of girls, down to just 1.7% in year 11. There is no corresponding drop in boys but rather an increase. In IAS’s Waberi school there is higher intake of girls in year 1 with 53% but there is a faster reduction in numbers that appears to start earlier, by year 8 there are no female students in the school. Counter to stereotypes, it appears that the Arab-supported school in fact has better retention rates than the IAS-sponsored school. These patterns can be the result of changing policies that are yet to work through the school or reflect annual variations in intake, however, the pattern of better retention rates in Arabsupported schools was repeated in the two other cases examined.

Figure 9: Enrolment at Africa Muslims Agency (AMA) Muhamed Harbi Primary School AMA school, Muhamud Harbi Primary School, Mogadishu

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
School Years 1-9
Number of students/
Year 2002/2003
Class (yr) Boys Girls Total %Girls
Class 1 114 129 243 53.1
Class 2 89 53 142 37.3
Class 3 66 57 123 46.3
Class 4 31 34 65 52.3
Class 5 20 4 24 16.7
Class 6 14 5 19 26.3
Class 7 13 1 14 7.1
Class 8 0 0 0 0.0
Total 347 283 630 29.9
Year 2002/03
Boys Girls Total % Girls
Class 1 46 30 76 39.5
Class 2 78 58 136 42.6
Class 3 75 47 122 38.5
Class 4 102 52 154 33.8
Class 5 110 35 145 24.1
Class 6 94 45 139 32.4
Class 7 210 135 345 39.1
Class 8 94 45 139 32.4
Class 9 133 68 201 33.8
Total 942 516 1457 35.3
The pair of schools presented in Figures 9 and 10, one run by AMA, the other by Concern, similarly illustrate the differential access of boys and girls and also the difference in retention rates. In the AMA school, the intake of girls is higher than in the Concern school and girls’ retention is roughly consistent from years 1 to 9, maintained around 35 percent, indicating that a substantial number of girls complete primary education. The percentage of girls enrolled in the Concern school fluctuates from over 30 percent in the early years to 10 percent in the final year. AMA, an Arabsupported school has a better retention rate and in fact increases its number of pupils, boys and girls, in the later years.
Figure 11: Enrolment at the Zam-Zam Foundation School
Zam Foundation- Omar Bin Khataab School,
Belet Weyne
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Class (1-9), school years
Number of students in
each class
Year 2002/2003
Class (yr) Boys Girls Total % Girls
Class 1 49 15 64 23.4
Class 2 68 30 98 30.6
Class 3 46 21 67 31.3
Class 4 25 9 34 26.5
Class 5 28 4 32 12.5
Class 6 14 1 15 6.7
Class 7 4 4 8 50.0
Class 8 9 1 10 10.0
Total 243 85 328 23.9
Class (yr) Boys Girls Total %Girls
Class 1 18 8 26 30.8
Class 2 19 20 39 51.3
Class 3 38 17 55 30.9
Class 4 33 16 49 32.7
Class 5 16 7 23 30.4
Class 6 22 7 29 24.1
Class 7 27 11 38 28.9
Class 8 12 10 22 45.5
Class 9 9 4 13 30.8
Total 194 100 294 33.9
Figure 11 presents data from a school run by the Zam Zam Foundation, a local Somali NGO with Arab links, in Beletwayne. Figure 12 shows data from the International Aid Sweden school at KM50. Both are located outside Mogadishu. In the Zam Zam school the level of intake and retention of girls stays relatively constant at around 30%. The IAS school has a higher intake of girls but a lower retention rate. Classes 7 and 8 have no female students.

The data presented above appears to demonstrate that, contrary to popular assumption, Arab-linked schools in fact have better retention rates of girls than Western-funded schools, which may have higher intakes of girls but dropout occurs earlier and faster. There are some anomalies in the above data and several schools have sudden unexplained increases or decreases in overall class size. A more accurate picture could be obtained by following groups of students through their school careers as annual intakes can vary significantly for a variety of reasons. However, it is clear that factors influencing retention rates merit further study.

The Arab-supported schools have a unified curriculum and examination system and issue certificates to students completing primary education. This is not the case in the Western-supported schools. This is a possible explanation for the low levels of students in classes 7 and 8 in the Western-supported schools. There is a corresponding increase in the number of students in Arab-linked schools for classes 7, 8, and 9. It is possible that these are students switching schools to gain certification.


4.1 Conclusions

From the research undertaken for this study it emerged that Arab donors and Arabsupported organisations have different policies and practices but that there are certain commonalities in that a lesser degree of formality is required than in dealing with Western donors and that sustainability is a key concern due to the preference for oneoff grants. The running of all but one of the Arab-linked organisations by Somalis was

Year 2002/2003
Class (yr) Boys Girls Total %Girls
Class 1 45 30 75 40.0
Class 2 9 24 33 72.7
Class 3 15 5 20 25.0
Class 4 18 4 22 18.2
Class 5 9 3 12 25.0
Class 6 12 3 15 20.0
Class 7 0 0 0 0.0
Class 8 0 0 0 0.0
Total 108 69 177 25.1
also notable. Practices also varied between schools but there is a high degree of coordination in the curriculum, provided by FPENS. An objective of this research was to provide recommendations for a building trust and coordination between Arab or Islamic-based organisations and Western donor organisations. This objective contains the assumption that there is a problem of trust between Arab-based and Western donors and agencies. Since 2001, Arab and Islamic charities in general have suffered international mistrust and have become popularly associated with Islamic fundamentalism and terrorist funding. While suspicions have been raised about the finances of a few organisations, the prevalence of the ‘fundamentalist’ stereotype has the potential to adversely affect a whole swathe of organisations that are undertaking genuine and effective education work in Somalia/land.

Giving charity is a universal principle. In Islamic societies charitable giving takes two forms, the religious obligation that every Muslim must give 2.5 percent of their wealth to charity each year – Zakat, and voluntary donations. Most Islamic charities started off by distributing Zakat. Priority has been given to looking after the most vulnerable, including the old, sick and orphaned. Charity work has been traditionally associated with mosques and other religious organisations. However, charity work is now a huge industry run by a myriad of organisations. Islamic organisations working in Somalia situate themselves within this charitable tradition.

In interviews it emerged that many Islamic organisations feel that the discourse of humanitarianism has been monopolised by Western organisations, secular or religious, and that little attempt has been made to understand how Islamic organisations conduct charity work. In the Muslim world charity work is often more informal and personalised, in contrast to the formal nature of modern Western aid. This informality is noticeable in the operations of Arab-linked organisations working in Somalia/land and is perceived as a barrier to cooperation with other donors due to the exacting standards of Western organisations for written accountability. Smaller organisations in particular felt that there was a need for Western organisations to build capacity among local NGOs to meet these standards and that the local expertise of Somali organisations should be given weight.

In the course of this research the Arab-linked organisations were asked about their collaboration (if any) with Western organisations and if there was none what they thought the reasons for this might be. It was apparent that there is a huge interest on the part of Somali-based Islamic or Arab charities to cooperate with Western donors. As stated in a recent article, ‘[c]ontrary to what one would expect of organisations rumoured to be preaching against the West, Somalia’s Islamic charities are generally open to relations with Western governments, non-governmental organisations and international institutions such as the United Nations and the European Union.’13 As the director of one organisation put it: “there is no action which can be said to be value free, but because we are working to help the Somali people, we should not allow our different world views to stop us from reaching the desperate population.” 13 Le Sage, Andre, ‘The Rise of Islamic Charities in Somalia: An assessment of the impacts and agendas’, paper presented to the 45th annual International Studies Convention, Montreal, 17-20 March 2004.

However, these same organisations feel that there is a reluctance to work with them on the part of Western organisations. The director of another organisation asked: “My organisation is one of the UN-affiliated NGOs and we are a major subcontractor to UN organisations in other countries and places that do not have the presence of UN personnel. Yet, the UN organisation in Nairobi would rather work with small Western NGOs than work us. Is it that the UN trusts us in other countries but not in Somalia? Or is that they do not trust the Somali people?”14 Over eighty percent of the organisations interviewed stated that they had worked with a Western organisation on at least one project. Yet, most organisations complained that these projects were usually of a small and limited nature, on an unequal basis and did not represent true attempts at partnership. Some of the larger organisations, such as WAMY and AMA, have attended Somali Aid Coordination Body (SACB) meetings in Nairobi. Whilst the SACB’s open-door policy (at lower levels) was recognised, these organisations felt that with control of the agenda and institution vested in Western organisations it was not an equal forum for coordination. Ninety percent of the organisations interviewed felt that this open-door policy did not equate with newcomers being welcome or guarantee that their views would be taken seriously. It was felt that there was a bias among Western donors to choose Western INGOs over perhaps better-qualified Islamic NGOs and that NGOs must appear to be pro-West, or even anti-Islam, to receive funding. These perceptions can pose a serious danger to NGOs working in Somalia/land. Recent Mogadishu newspaper reports have accused local NGOs of working with foreign secret agents and conniving against Islamic charities.15

A striking finding was the fact that while intakes of girls may be slightly lower in Arab-supported schools than in Western-supported schools, the rates of retention appeared to be significantly higher. It was suggested the gaining of certification from the Arab schools may be one reason for this but it is a finding that warrants further investigation than could be undertaken by this study.

4.2 Recommendations

All organisations that participated in this study expressed eagerness to work more closely with Western organisations and recommended the creation of structures to enhance information exchange and collaboration. In general, it appeared that Western organisations knew very little about their Arab or Islamic counterparts. The Arab or Islamic organisations, while better informed, felt disrespected and discriminated against by Western organisations. These suspicions and lack of information could be addressed through a coordination forum or regular meeting in a setting perceived to be more neutral than that provided by the SACB. The group of Somali education organisations who have been meeting regularly for over a year to look at issues such as curriculum development provide a good starting point for this.16 Some liaison with the SACB education committee has been undertaken. This should be expanded and formalised around issues identified.

14 Interview with Deputy Director, WAMY. 15 See XOGOGAAL newspaper of 28, 29 and 30 March 2004. 16 Members of the group are; FPENS, SAACID, TADAMUN, GECPD and Candlelight. The need for capacity-building for local Somali organisations, including those primarily funded from Arab sources, was urged. Many organisations felt that the accountability standards of Western organisations were too demanding compared to the trust basis on which Arab funding was received. Most also accepted that these standards would not be lowered and therefore felt that capacity-building for organisations to meet these standards was necessary. It was suggested that Western organisations could learn from their Arab-funded counterparts in that a Somali national headed all but one of the Arab organisations. This was felt to contribute significantly to their success.

Several organisations highlighted that the severe shortage of qualified teachers was an impediment to the expansion of the education sector. This needs to be addressed through the development of training and professional standards and ongoing refresher and new skills courses and perhaps through the sponsorship of recent high-school graduates through local universities.

The development of a framework (curriculum) to ensure quality across schools with inspections and rewards for compliance was suggested. Curriculum harmonisation was raised as a key issue for coordination, perhaps through a conference of schools, which could also address other cross-cutting issues such as girls’ access to education. Specific strategies suggested to address the low numbers of children, particularly girls attending schools included:
- Expansion of existing schools through building classrooms, recruiting more teachers and providing more materials;
- A ‘back-to-school’ campaign to encourage parents to send their children to school;
- Provision of incentives to parents or scholarships for children who are currently not attending school because of poverty at home, including providing meals at school, grants for school uniforms, books etc.;
- Focus on training and recruitment of more female teachers to encourage girls to attend school;
- Gender training for all teachers;
- Provision of adequate sanitation in schools;
- Provision of secure transport to and from school.


Formal Private Education Network In Somalia (FPENS), Education Baseline Survey- 2001, Mogadishu, 2002
Government of Somalia, Ministry of Education, Curriculum and Official Syllabus for Primary Cycle Education Grade 1-8, Mogadishu, 1986
Le Sage, Andre, ‘The Rise of Islamic Charities in Somalia: An assessment of the impacts and agendas’, paper presented to the 45th annual International Studies Convention, Montreal, 17-20 March 2004.
Ministers of Education of African Member States, Taking up the Challenges of Education in Africa, from the Commitment to Action, Eighth Conference of African Education Ministers, Dar es Salaam, 2-6 December 2002
NGO Consortium, NGOs in Somalia Handbook, Nairobi, 2002
Novib Somalia, Mapping Somali Civil Society, Nairobi, 2003
Novib Somalia, Directory of Somali NGOs, Nairobi, 2003
Puntland Administration, Education Policy Paper, 2002, Draft Quality Education for All: Information system for non-governmental organisations, World View, 1995
UNESCO-PEER, Education Reports; 1998, 2000,2001,2002, Nairobi UNICEF/UNDP/UNESCO, Education For All; An assessment report, Somalia, 2000
UNICEF Somalia, Country Programme Action Plan, 2004-2008, Nairobi, 2004 UNICEF, Survey of Primary Schools in Somalia, 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, Nairobi Watkins, Kevin, The Oxfam Education Report, Oxfam, UK, 2000.

Appendix I Questionnaire for School heads or Administrators (to be filled in by Consultant only) Details of Organisation

1. Name of organisation_____________________________________________
2. Position of interviewee ___________________________________________
3. Year established in Somalia________________________________________
4. Headquarters of Organisation_______________________________________
5. Number of Branches in Somalia_____________________________________
6. Number of employees_____________________________________________
7. Main sectors of work in Somalia_____________________________________
8. Please select from the list below the sectors your organisations works in:
a) Education______________________
b) Health_________________________
c) Orphanages_____________________
d) Water and sanitation______________
e) Relief food______________________
f) Others (please specify)_____________
g) ________________________________
Work in Education
9) If your organisation works in the education sector, please complete the table below;

Types of schools - No of Schools - Total No of students - No. Males - No. Females No of Teachers No Males No Females No. Other Staff Primary
Secondary Others 
9. Please list the schools you support:
Name of School________Type (primary/secondary)_________________location
(Please attach extra page for more schools)
10. Language of instruction; please tick the appropriates category:
a) Arabic only _____________
b) Somali only _____________
c) English only _____________
d) All the above _____________
e) Arabic and Somali only _____________
f) Arabic and English only _____________
g) English and Somali only _____________
10a. Who decides on the language of instruction
a) The donor
b) The organisation
c) Local school committees/ Somali experts/ parent teacher association
11. Please tick the statement that applies to your organisation with regard to the
curricula of the schools you support:
a. Our organisation determines the curricula of our schools___________
b. The schools make their own choice of curriculum_________________
c. The government or regional authority determines the curricula_______
d. The community determines the curriculum for the schools__________
e. We use the old Somali education system________________________
f. We follow curriculum as determined by FPENS__________________
g. We follow the curriculum as determined by UNICEF______________
h. We use other curriculum (please state)__________________________
11 a) Who determines the curriculum for your schools?
a) The donor
d) The organisation
e) Local school committees/ Somali experts/ parent teacher association
Policies and practices of the organisation
12. Where do most of your funds come from (state country)______________
13. Characteristic of your donors: they are mostly from;
a. Annual budget allocations from our headquarters aboard________
b. Individual philanthropist sponsoring specific project through our
parent organisation (aboard)______________________________
c. Individual philanthropists sponsoring projects directly our local
d. Local philanthropists sponsoring projects locally______________
e. Local fundraising activities________________________________
f. Our own fundraising activities abroad________________________
14. Annual budget for supporting education in Somalia: please tick the
appropriate amounts, in US Dollars
a. US$ 1 to 10,000__________________
b. 10,001 to 20,000 _________________
c. 20,001 to 30,000_________________
d. 30,001 to 40,000__________________
e. 40,001 to 50,000_________________
f. 50,001 to 100,000________________
g. 100,001 to 200,000________________
h. 200,001 to 500,000________________
i. 500,001 to 1,000,000_______________
j. More than one million (please state amount) ______________
15. Which of the following best describes the kind of support your organisation
provides to schools in Somalia:
a. The organisation establishes and runs schools_________________
b. The organisation supports schools financially only_____________
c. The organisation provides non-financial supports only (e.g. give books
d. The organisation provides financial and non- financial supports to
schools (established by others e.g. communities) _________________
e. The organisation works with communities to run their own schools___
16. Which of the following best describes the level of involvement in the
management of the schools you support:
a. The organisation employs the management staff and teachers of the
b. The school’s management are independent of the organisation______
c. The organisation builds schools and hands over to communities_____
d. We only provide help as requested by schools___________________
17. How do you chose a school to support (describe please)
18. Please explain the policies of your donors for supporting your education
projects in Somalia_____________________________________________
19. Do your donors visit your local offices or project stations (Please tick)
No______ (go to question number 20)
If yes, How often (please tick as appropriate);
a) Annually____________________
b) Twice a year_________________
c) Once in two years_____________
d) Other (state please)____________
20. Does the head of your organisation visit the donor headquarters abroad?
No_______ (go to question number 20)
If yes, how often (please tick as appropriate);
e) Annually____________________
f) Twice a year_________________
g) Once in two years_____________
h) Other (state please)____________
21. Please describe how your donors monitor your education projects in
22. Do you have specific policies for gender mainstreaming in staffing or in
supporting girl-child education;
a. Yes_________
b. No__________
If yes please explain your policies____________________________
If no please explain why not____________________________________________
22. In your opinion /experience which of the following factors best explains the
difficulties faced in supporting girl-child education in Somalia (please tick one);
a) The Somali cultural practices_______________________________
b) The Islamic teachings_____________________________________
c) Combination of Somali and Islamic cultures___________________
d) Girls education is more expensive than boys education___________
e) NGOs supporting education in Somalia lack capacity and knowledge for
promoting girl- child education______________________________
f) Other (please state)_______________________________________
g) None of the above________________________________________
23. a) Does your organisation run orphanages? (Please tick)
Yes___________ if yes how many for Boys_______for Girls_____
b) If you do not have any for girls, could please explain why_________
Collaborative activities with other organisations:
23. Do you have current collaborative work with other education providers in  Somalia? (Please tick one);
If yes, which organisations do you work with and in which areas of education?
Name of organisation area of work relation
Name of School________________ Organisation________ year started________
24. Could you suggest ways of adopting common strategy among donors involved in the education sector in Somalia ____________________________________________

25. Gender and School enrolments in Somalia (sample schools only). Kindly help enumerator to complete the chart below from your schools
No of Students 2001/2 No of Students 2002/3 No of Teachers
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Male Female Total

Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Class 6
Class 7
Class 8
Class 9
Class 10
Class 11
Class 12

Questionnaire for Parents /Guardians
Instruction for enumerator: Please find do not interview any parent that you know personally:_____________________________________
1. Date and place of Interview___________________________________________
2. Name of school child attends______________________________________
3. Number of Children in the School_______male_______ female____ Total______
4. Ages of children (state no in each age groups) ______4 to 8_____9 to
12___________13 to 18_______
5. Education level of parent: (please tick one)
a) No formal education
b) Primary education
c) Secondary Education
d) Above secondary education
6. Do you know the language of instruction in the school where your child attend?
a) Yes _______________
b) No________________
7. Do you have preference for a language of instruction for your child’s education___
If you have one which language: (Tick one please);
a) Arabic______
b) Somali_______
c) English_______
8. Do you pay fees for your children’s of education: Yes____ NO____. If yes
a) Fee paying_______ how much__________ or
b) Receive free education_________
9. Choice of school: what were your considerations for taking your children to this
school? (Please tick all that apply):
1) It’s close to my home____________________________
2) It offers the kind of education I want for my children_____________
3) It provides free / or affordable education___________________________
4) I have relatives/or acquaintances in teaching or management of school___
5) We (my community) owns the school___________________________
6) State other reason please______________________________________