Report Submitted by:
Acacia Consultants Ltd.
P.O. Box 340, Sarit Centre
00606 Westlands, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel/fax: 3742855 Tel: 3746655 / 3747867
Mobile: 0733 780900 / 0722 203 444
Quality technical and vocational education and training (TVET) helps to develop the individual’s knowledge of science and technology in a broad occupational area requiring technical and professional competencies and specific occupational skills. National TVET systems therefore need to develop the knowledge and skills that will help the workforce become more flexible and responsive to the needs of local labour markets, while competing in the global economy. Some countries have introduced TVET reforms that endeavour to integrate work-place-based learning and training into the vocational education curriculum. TVET systems must also be open and all inclusive to give even the most underprivileged access to learning and training. The opportunity for people in urban and rural communities to equip themselves to lead productive and satisfying lives will undoubtedly be critical to the prosperity and well-being of the community.
In a time of continuous economic, social, and technological change, skills and knowledge become quickly out dated. People who have not been able to benefit from formal education and training must be given an opportunity to acquire new skills and knowledge to enhance their quality of life. Providing individuals with learning opportunities throughout their lives is an ambitious but necessary undertaking. An all-inclusive lifelong learning system calls for the mobilization of increased public and private resources for education and training and for providing individuals and enterprises with the incentives to invest in meeting their learning and skills development needs. [A joint message from UNESCO and ILO 2002]
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ANDP Activist Network for Disabled CBOs Community Based Organizations CEDAW Coalition on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women CIDA Canadian International Development Agency DFID Department for International Development DS Diakona Sweden EBTVET Employment Based Technical and Vocational Education and Training EFA Education for All GAVO General Assistance and Volunteer Organization GI Gothernburn Institute HAVOYOCO Horn of Africa Youth Voluntary Organization HR Human Resource IAEC Integrated Adult Education Centre IBTVET Institution based Technical vocational Education and Training IGA Income Generating Activity ILO International Labour Organization LED Local Economic Development LNGOs Local Non Governmental Organizations M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MoE Ministry of education NGOs Non Governmental Organizations NDC National Demobilization Commission OCA Organizational capacity Assessment PETT Promotion of Employment through Training PWD People with disabilities RSLNED Republic of Somaliland National Education SAHAN Somaliland National HIV/AIDS Network SCD Save children Denmark SHURA Somaliland Human Rights Network SNDF Somaliland National Disability Forum SLNEP Somaliland National Education Policy SNEBC Somaliland examination and Certification Board SONYO Somaliland National Youth Organization . TOT Trainer of Trainers TVET Technical Vocational Education and Training UN United Nations UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and cultural organization UNICEF United Nations Children Education Fund
Save the Children Denmark SCD is leading a consortium consisting of CARE, SCD in Somaliland, Gothenburg Institute (GI) and Diakonia Sweden (DS) that is implementing the Promotion of Employment through Training (PETT) Project in Somaliland and in Puntland. The overall objective of PETT Project is to sustainably improve the livelihood and employment opportunities of the disadvantaged youth and women in both Somaliland and Puntland. The project contributes to their vulnerability reduction by providing the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).
Specifically, the project uses vocational training centres managed by selected local implementing partners to provide quality training and opportunities through Institution Based Technical Vocational Education and Training (IBTEVET) and Enterprise Based Technical Vocational Education and Training (EBTVET) by attaching trainees to identified potential enterprises in the main towns of Somaliland and Puntland. The project emphasizes on job placement services and provision of information on employment and local economic development (LED) opportunities. Its overall goal is to enhance the capacity of the local implementing partners through technical assistance and capacity building workshops.
SC Denmark has commissioned an organizational capacity assessment (OCA) to review and identify capacity gaps in the Ministry of Education, IBTVET centres and local implementing partners. The assessment was carried out in March and April, 2006 by Acacia Consultants Limited (ACL). The objective of the assessment was to identify areas of weaknesses in the IBTVET program, identify capacity gaps and recommend an appropriate capacity building training for the identified gaps. The assessment approaches included the following; i) review meetings and consultation fora with PETT project staff of the consortium, ii) interviews with the Ministry of Education (Minister for Education, Director of Non-formal Education; Chairman of the Puntland Examinations Board (PEB),); iii) desk reviews of documents related to the project such as the PETT feasibility study (2004); the Puntland Education Policy Paper ( PEPP Draft 3, 2004), various PETT project reports, organizational profiles; constitutions and other internal documents of the centres, and iv) site visit to local implementing agencies and the Ministry of Education in Puntland, IBTVET centres, and partner LNGOs in Garowe, Galkayo, Gardo Bosaso.
Key players and stakeholders in the provision of TVET in Somaliland that were identified include the ministry of education, the directorate of non-formal education, the curriculum and training development centre, Somaliland National Examination Board. Other stakeholders and players included local community organizations namely; Activists Network for Disabled people (ANDP) and the General Assistance and Volunteers organization GAVO). Other Pre-war institutions that were either looted or rendered derelict after the war include Hargeisa Technical/Vocational Education and Training Institute and the National Technical Institute that was located at Burao.
Hargeisa Technical Institute was one of the two post-primary TVET institutions established in Somaliland the 1950s, during the British colonial period. At that time the institute, known as Hargeisa Technical/Vocational Education and Training Institute offered courses in carpentry, masonry, quantity surveying, metal works, and draftsman and design for civil and building technicians. All physical infrastructure, the equipment, and machines in both institutes were looted and destroyed, and the buildings were badly damaged during the civil war of 1988-1991.
The Activists Network for Disabled People (ANDP) founded in January 2001 by a group of people with disabilities, parents, community members and rehabilitation professionals is a human right activists’ voluntary organization, non-governmental organization that is not for profit. The General Assistance and Volunteers Organization (GAVO) is a youth-based, non-profit non-governmental organization that was formed in 1993 following long period of social strife and instability in Somaliland. GAVO’s activities initially targeted the two most vulnerable segments of the society, the mentally handicapped and street children but this has since expanded to cover the urban poor, returnees, farming communities, the entire youth community and municipality officials1 From the assessment, areas that were rated relatively low were the skills and capacity training that staff in GAVO, including volunteers receives internally and externally. The other area rated low was professional staff turnover. In particular GAVO indicated that they would like to receive capacity building in project cycle management, resource mobilization/fundraising, monitoring and evaluation and project sustainability.
The Ministry of Education in Somaliland has developed a draft policy (August 2005) to guide the development of education in the phase of reconstruction and development. Education is recognized by the Government as the key tool for achieving the vision of Somaliland. 2 The final draft policy is generally comprehensive and stipulates the national goals of education, the Somaliland vision on education and the general provisions which target and reaffirm the Republic’s commitment to the Principle of Education for All irrespective of sex, religion, clan or class. The draft policy on education in Somaliland acknowledges that TVET is crucial to the development and provision of training of the necessary human resources for the success of the industrial sector required to spur economic growth in the Republic.
There are however some weaknesses in the section on TVET in the draft policy which if addressed could enhance the development of the education sector generally and the TVET component in particular. First, though the policy document rightly treats TVET as a critical component of the education sector it is vague on the envisaged model to be adopted. Second, unlike the primary and secondary sub-sectors which have been adequately embedded in the Somaliland National Education Policy (SLNEP) in terms of curriculum and examination system, the TVET section does not have subjects or the examination system that will govern TVET. Thirdly, the final draft policy makes little mention of Vocational Training including its curriculum, examinations and upgrading its linkages to technical and higher education. With such a blurred conceptualization of TVET its implementation may be problematic.
Skill training is the predominant type of TVET in existence in Somaliland. The only resource materials available are the 11 textbooks and teacher guides developed by UNESCO PEER that were meant to form the basis for developing technical and vocational skills in the country and facilitate the grading of skills into proficiency levels of Grade 3 (Basic), Grade 2 (Intermediate) and Grade 1(Advanced).
Overall, from the assessment there is an enormous potential for the provision of quality TVET in Somaliland particularly if interventions by all stakeholders in this area are harmonized including the restructuring of the existing Somaliland educational policies on the provision of TVET. Efforts to improve institutional human and financial resource capacities will also go along way in improving the overall efficiency in the provision of TVET to help attain the general and specific sector goals that include improved livelihoods through improved employment for youth women and other vulnerable interest groups in Somaliland as a state. Equally urgent is the need to increase equitable access to TVET opportunities for both men and women by way of opening up more training institutions and increasing enrolment capacities of existing ones.
Save the Children Denmark SCD, in Somalia is currently conducting Promotion of Employment through Training (PETT) Project as a lead agency of a consortium consisting of CARE, SCD in Somaliland, Gothenburg Institute (GI) and Diakonia Sweden (DS) in Puntland. The overall objective of PETT Project is to sustainably improve the livelihood and employment opportunities of the disadvantaged youth and women in both Somaliland and Puntland thus contributing to reduce their vulnerability through provision of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). Specifically, the project uses vocational training centres of selected local implementing partners to provide access to quality training and opportunities through Institution Based Technical Vocational Education and Training (IBTEVET) and Enterprise Based Technical Vocational Education and Training (EBTVET) by attaching trainees to identified potential enterprises in the main towns of Somaliland and Puntland.
The PETT project also emphasizes on job placement services and availability of information on employment and local economic development (LED) opportunities in conjunction with TVET activities. Its aims is to enhancing the capacity of the local implementing partners by providing technical assistance and capacity building workshops. ACL consultancy carried out the assessment of project activities, identified capacity gaps in the Ministry of Education, IBTVET centres and local implementing partners and provided recommendations on the way forward .
2.0 Methodology and Approach
2.1 Objectives of the Capacity Assessment
The objective of the assessment was to identify areas of weaknesses in the IBTVET program, identify capacity gaps and recommend an appropriate capacity building training for the identified gaps.
The main task, as stated by the implementing agency, was to carry out a capacity assessment of the IBTVET centres and their implementing agencies namely the LNGOs that run them and the Ministry of Education in Somaliland.
The information gathered from the assessment was to be used by the contracting agency to:
- Assist the Ministry of Education in reviewing TVET policy guidelines
- Support the development and implementation of an effective cost recovery, finance and management system for TVET centres
- Develop capacity building training for LNGOs that run the TVET centres.
The approaches utilized in assessing the capacity included:
- Consultation with project staff to review the assignment and logistics
- Desk review of existing project documents and material related to TVET and employment promotion.
- Visits to the Ministry of Education in Somaliland, IBTVET centres, and partner LNGOs to carry out the organization capacity assessment (OCA) relevant to the areas mentioned in the problem statement.
- Development of training requirements to address the problems mentioned in the problem statement.
3.1 Capacity Assessment of Somaliland Ministry of Education
3.1.1 Somaliland National Education Policy: An Overview
The Ministry of Education in Somaliland has developed a draft policy (August 2005) to guide the development of education in the phase of reconstruction and development. The development of the Republic of Somaliland National Education Policy (RSLNEP) has the overall goal of contributing to the country’s developmental efforts generally and to provide the human resources required to match the economic growth of Somaliland in the next two decades and enable the country to realize its national vision. Education is recognized by the Government as the key tool for achieving the vision of Somaliland (Republic of Somaliland, SLNEP, Final Draft, and August 2005)
The final draft policy is generally comprehensive and stipulates the national goals of education, the Somaliland vision on education and the general provisions which target and reaffirm the Republic’s commitment to the Principle of Education for All irrespective of sex, religion, clan or class.
The policy document is clear on the need to provide education in Somaliland as a joint partnership between the Government, communities, civil society, the private sector and parents. This reflects the reality in provision of education as both a social (public) and private good within the context of multi-stakeholder partnerships currently thriving in Somaliland.
Within the general provisions of the Education sector, the draft policy targets four broad areas:
- Girls’ education
- Life skills education
- Education for nomads, pastoralists, agro-pastoralists and other disadvantaged groups
- Education of children with special needs and special talents.
The isolation of the four main areas that will be the primary target of the draft policy and the development of relevant strategies for each area is wise as it focuses the Governments efforts to these target groups whose education is within the spirit of EFA goals, the Convention on Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Millennium Declaration.
3.1.2 Technical and Vocation Education and Training and the SLNEP
a) The Concepts
According to UNESCO’s Convention on Technical and Vocational Education, TVET "... refers to all forms and levels of the education process involving, in addition to general knowledge, the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, know-how, attitudes and understanding relating to occupations in the various sectors of economic and social life".
It can be provided "... in educational institutions or through co-operative programmes organised jointly by educational institutions, on the one hand, and industrial, agricultural, commercial or any other undertaking related to the world of work, on the other".
In the revised UNESCO recommendation on technical and vocational education, TVET is understood to be:
a) An integral part of general education;
(b) A means of preparing for occupational fields and for effective participation in the world of work;
(c) An aspect of lifelong learning and a preparation for responsible citizenship;
(d) An instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable development
d) A method of facilitating poverty alleviation (UNESCO, 2001). Technical and Vocational Education should be designed that it:
(a) Is an integral part of everyone’s basic general education in the form of initiation to technology, the world of work, and human values and standards for responsible citizenship;
(b) May be freely and positively chosen as the means by which people develop talents, interests and skills leading to an occupation in various sectors or to further education;
(c) Allows access to other aspects and areas of education at all levels, including institutions of higher learning, by being grounded in a solid general education and, as a result of the integration mentioned in paragraph 6(a), containing a general education component through all stages of specialization;
(d) Allows transfers from one field to another within technical and vocational education;
(e) Is readily available to all and for all appropriate types of specialization, within and outside formal education systems, and in conjunction or in parallel with training in order to permit educational, career and job mobility at the minimum age at which the general basic education is considered to have been acquired, according to the education system in force in each country;
(f) Is available on the above terms and on a basis of equality to women as well as men, and where the learning and working environment is made suitable for the participation of girls and women by removing overt and covert bias and discrimination and seeking strategies for motivating girls and women to take an interest in vocational and technical education;
(g) Is available to people with disabilities and to socially and economically disadvantaged groups such as immigrants, refugees, minorities (including indigenous peoples), demobilized soldiers in post-conflict situations, and underprivileged and marginalized youth in special forms adapted to their needs in order to integrate them more easily into society.(UNESCO,2nd. November 2001) 4
b) Components of TVET in the SLNEP
The draft education policy on education in Somaliland acknowledges that TVET is crucial to the development and successful development of industrial sector required to spur economic growth in the Republic The policy is also explicit on the commitment of the Government in expanding participation and improving the quality of technical and technical vocational education. Training sub-sector the require political and ideological support to be successful.
According to the SLNEP the objectives of technical and vocational education in Somaliland are inter alia to;
- Develop appropriate skills through practical training and work experience
- Produce men and women who apply scientific knowledge to the solving of problems around them and are equipped with skills for both direct and self-employment
- Cultivate a firm link with the industrial sector and the world of work
- Develop a work culture with strong ethics and precision
- Provide education and expand training opportunities for junior secondary school and grade 8 leavers that opt for an entry to the provisions
- Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills that will stimulate the economic growth of Somaliland.
The SLNEP also makes reference to the modes of entry to technical and vocational education in Somaliland. Three modes are open to learners into TVET, namely;
- First, entry for Grade 8 leaver who upon completing primary education will be eligible to enrol in a four-year technical or professional training
- Second, Grade 10 (junior secondary) graduates who have the option to enrol into a two -year technical/professional training
- Third, a sandwich mode through which Grade 8 graduates can undertake an initial two-year vocational training, go to the field for a period of internship and come back for the remaining two years of technical/professional training, as in mode one above (See annex on the structure and equivalency of Formal and Informal Education) The curriculum structure for each of the modes is summarised in the table below.
Table1. Technical and Professional Curriculum for the Three TVET Entry Modes Entry Mode Curriculum Structure Four-year Post Grade 8 Initial two years – general academic foundation in the respective area of specialisation Two years specialisation in the technical professional area Two-year Post Grade 10 Two year education devoted to specialization in the prospective technical/professional area Four- year Post Grade 8 Two year general foundation academic and technical/professional education Internship for a period of time Two years to complete the technical /professional education in the area of specialisationSource: Adapted from Final Draft SLNEP, August 2005
A commendable move by the Government in the TVET section of the SLNEP is the bold decision to take an affirmative action by promising to “actively expand learning opportunities for women and disadvantaged groups”. The Policy singles out strategies that the Government will adopt for girls in TVET including:
- Encouragement of interaction between school-girls and women role models
- Extensive career guidance to girls on the need to take up practically oriented subjects
- Establishment of deliberate measures to boost female students’ participation by designing and implementing affirmative action like admitting women with lower marks compared to men
- Disseminating of information to parents and the general public on the benefits of educating girls in science, mathematics and technical subjects.
The policy framework is also largely explicit in terms of measures that will be designed to make TVET relevant or externally efficient and the strategies that will be employed for improving the teaching and learning process in TVET.
c) Policy Lacuna in the Draft SLNEP
The importance of the draft education policy governing the education sector in Somaliland need not be overemphasized. There are however some weaknesses in the section on TVET in the current draft which if addressed could enhance the development of the education sector generally and the TVET component in particular.
First, though the policy document rightly treats TVET as a critical component of the education sector it is vague on the envisaged model to be adopted. For instance the section on curriculum structure of TVET states that “when developed there will be junior technical schools (forms one and two) and senior technical schools (forms 3 and 4)”, implying that there will be technical secondary education or institutions, the section on secondary education on the hand notes that “secondary education is to be seen to be distinct route from technical education…….” Also if the envisaged structure is adopted it will not be in tandem with the Convention on TVET which stipulates that TVET should be designed in a way that it is an integral part of everyone’s basic general education in the form of initiation to technology, the world of work, and human values and standards for responsible citizenship (UNESCO, 2001)
Second, unlike the primary and secondary sub-sectors which have been adequately embedded in the SLNEP in terms of curriculum and examination system the TVET section does not have subjects or the examination system that will govern TVET.
Third, the final draft policy makes little mention of Vocational Training including its curriculum, examinations and upgrading its linkages to technical and higher education. With such a blurred conceptualization of TVET its implementation may be problematic. Fourth, there are no time-bound targets set for TVET unlike the primary and to some extent secondary education that have specific goals, measurable and verifiable indicators. In essence the policy targets such as improving enrolment rates, improving the participation of girls/ women in the TVET institutions enhancing the participation of children with handicaps so that they acquire some important life skills etc, will be a mere pipe-dream unless clear targets and indicators are developed for TVET as well.
The SLNEP is rather casual on establishment of technical and professional institutions. In a country which acknowledges that TVET is crucial to the development and provision of training to human resources necessary for the success of the industrial sector to spur economic growth of Somaliland, the establishment of relevant state supported institutions should be top on the agenda in the current national education policy. On the contrary the policy only shows lack of commitment in this direction. The policy statement on this aspect is that “the Government will encourage the establishment of technical and professional institutions as a way of meeting the mid-level human resource needs of the country given current inadequacies”
3.1.3 Capacity Assessment of Key Ministry of Education Departments
In this subsection we present an organizational capacity assessment of the MoE Director General’s office, the Directorate of Non-formal Education, the Somaliland National Examination Board and the Directorate of Curriculum and Training. The capacity assessment was based on interviews held with the relevant Government officials and a non-participant observation of the physical infrastructure in the MoE in Somaliland.
a) The Director General’s Office
The comments of the Director General, in a personal interview3“…the most important thing we need today is establishment of technical institutes; how to create technical institutes in Somaliland. We need to make the learners at least have a promising future. With technical skills he or she could do something to earn daily bread… “
The Director General’s Office is largely limited in capacity to steer the Ministry of Education effectively. The Directorate has an acute shortage of staff; the entire directorate has only three directors none of whom have technical or vocational academic background making it difficult for the office to give the necessary expert mentoring and policy direction. There is also an acute shortage of basic materials and equipment. However, there is enormous good will for TVET that can be exploited in putting in place systems required to develop a unified TVET sub-sector
Based on the above, it is recommended that
- The project duration is extended for a minimum of 7 years to make MoE develop capacity to take and run the programmes and to enhance sustainability.
- Given the low technical and human resource capacity of the MoE in Somaliland support should be extended to the Government to develop the relevant structures and personnel.
- There is urgent need to support MoE rehabilitate and or establish at least one Government technical institute in each of the five regional towns- Hargeisa, Sahil, Togdher, Sanag, and Awdal
- The MoE should be supported to develop a curriculum for Technical and Professional Training. The existing UNESCO curriculum could serve as a guide in technical skill upgrading.
- Relevant and adequate teaching-learning materials in all the skill areas need to be developed or supplied as appropriate.
- The basic infrastructure of the MoE are in pathetic situation right from office furniture to office space, office equipment e.g. computers, printers, mobility of staff etc. The MoE should first be made functional through provision of these facilities before it can carry out its duties including establishment TVET.
b) The Non – Formal Education Department
i) Number of TVET institutions and Ownership
- There are 81 TVET institutions operating in Somaliland.
- None of the institutions is owned by the government
- The institutions have been categorised into three- A, B and C, depending on the number of programmes they offer:
(i) Category A are those that offer 7-10 skill trades and also work efficiently e.g. HAVOYOCO, (ii) Category B offer between 4 and 6 trades (iii) Category C offer less than 4 trades
ii) TVET Curriculum
Through UNESCO support in 2002, syllabi have been developed for 11 trades including: Carpentry, Masonry, Garment making, Electricity, Metalwork, Agriculture –dip, Plumbing, Accounting and book-keeping, Hospitality/Catering. These syllabi constitute the only resource material that the department has in the area of TVE.
- There are 115 TVET instructors in Somaliland, with varying TVE proficiency levels.
- Very few of the instructors possess more than post secondary training.
- Data on their qualifications and gender was not readily available in the MoE iv) Recommendations
- Urgent support is needed in building the capacity of NFE department to establish a TVET unit under a deputy director. The person in charge of the unit should have the relevant academic and professional background in TVET. Development partners could consider extending this technical assistance by supporting the Government in meeting the costs of such an office for such a period of time that the unit will be fully functional.
- A country-wide community needs assessment should be carried out by the NFE department to determine the current TVE needs and status in the various regions of Somaliland. Such a need assessment will, ensure that the TVE programmes are relevant and responsive to the current developmental priorities in Somaliland.
- There is need for exchange visits to other communities and countries to make the local opinion leaders and stakeholders in TVE generally learn and share experiences in this area. 8
- There is an acute shortage of TVE instructors. Training programmes should be mounted in all skill areas. There is also a need to retrain existing instructors since their skills may have become obsolete due to the fast changing technological advances or lack of practice for long period of time. Most of these instructors have been out of practice or practising in less challenging training environments.
- Given that, most instructors are in a fairly elderly and there is a general generation gap that needs to be urgently bridged for continuity in TVET in Somaliland, New instructors should be recruited.
- The NFE department needs to be equipped adequately. It lacks adequate office space and equipment like computers, printers and even furniture.
- The policy on TVE needs to be reviewed and entrenched within other efforts targeting the strengthening of the education sector in Somaliland. For instance whereas innovative programmes are in place to strengthen curriculum and teaching like the EU Funded Save the Children UK SCOTT programme, the TVET teacher training is not included. The same applies to the curriculum being developed by the MoE targeting primary teacher training.
- For long term sustainability of the TVE programme and even to give it the necessary ideological and credibility status, the Government must be actively involved in the provision of TVE
- The NFE department should actively tap the potential financial, material and technical resources in Diaspora in developing TVE in Somaliland
- The education sector as a whole and NFE department in particular should be supported to establish a database and put in place systems for collecting periodic data on learners, teachers and teaching-learning infrastructure for effective planning and programme implementation. An Education Management Information System (EMIS) is therefore a sector-wide priority.
Education officers at the Ministry Headquarters and regional level lack the required management and supervisory skills. Capacity building programmes in these aspects is essential for effective implementation of TVE in Somaliland. The department’s supervisors lack means of transport and purchase of motorbikes could easily facilitate their movement.
c) Curriculum and Training Development Centre
Somaliland has established a centre for curriculum and training headed by a director. The overall responsibility of the centre is the development of curriculum and teacher training issues. The development of a new curriculum of the Republic of Somaliland started in 1997 when a preparatory workshop was held in Nairobi Kenya. The development of the curriculum was supported by UNESCO and UNICEF with funding from the European Commission and other European countries. The workshop was attended by representatives from Somalia and Somaliland. The workshop resolved that Somaliland and Somalia should have two separate curricula, since by 1993 Somaliland had a fully fledged education system whereas the rest of Somalia had no functional system.
In line with the 1997 workshop resolution Somaliland embarked on the development of her primary school curriculum (including textbooks), beginning with the lower primary one in1998. The lower primary curriculum was finalised a year later, in 1999. There are seven core subjects for the lower primary- Somali Language, Arabic Language, English Language, Science, Social Studies, Mathematics, and Islamic studies. Physical Education has since been incorporated as the eighth subject for the level. The upper primary curriculum was developed between 2001 and 2003. Books for Grade 7 and 8 are ready but have not been printed though. There were however on-going negotiations between the MoE and UNESCO on the printing of the textbooks.
An estimated 3,000 primary school teachers, inclusive of teachers in private schools, in all the six regions of the country have received the necessary training on the new curriculum. The training is done through short intensive seminars (7-10 days). In addition, a pool of 40 TOTs was trained by development partners for the primary education sub-sector in Somaliland.
ii) TVE Curriculum
Skill training is the predominant type of TVET in existence in Somaliland. The only resource materials available to Somaliander’s are the 11 textbooks and teacher guides developed by UNESCO PEER that were meant to form the basis for developing technical and vocational skills in the country and facilitate the grading of skills into proficiency levels of Grade 3 (Basic), Grade 2 (Intermediate) and Grade 1(Advanced).
iii) Human Resource Capacity of the Curriculum Development and Training Centre
- The curriculum and training centre of the Republic of Somaliland is acutely understaffed. There are only four professional staff at the centre (the Director and three Assistant Directors in charge of Curriculum, Textbook Production and Teacher Training respectively).
- None of the four staff is a woman.
- All the four professional staff in the centre possesses at least a bachelors degree
- The technical capacity of the human resource at the centre is however generally low especially in the area of curriculum development. Overall, the training level of the staff is low and their level of knowledge in curriculum design, development, and material development needs urgent improvement for them to effectively carry out the centre’s multidimensional role and to meet the ever expanding education programmes in Somaliland. Currently the staff are “relying more on their experience rather than as their knowledge in curriculum development is low”.
- The centre also” lacks a pool of keenly selected resource persons to service it especially in material and textbook development.” iv) Legal Status
- The Curriculum and Training Development Centre has been recognized as a key institution in the SLNPE and given the responsibility over curriculum and teacher development issues.
- Support for full implementation of the national education of education of the Republic of Somaliland is therefore critical for the future functionality of relevant institutions such as the curriculum and training development centre.
- There is an urgent need to develop a TVET curriculum that will serve the needs of Somaliland. The UNESCO syllabi currently in existence could serve as a guide though there may be a need to review them to enhance their relevance. The syllabi developed should be comprehensive to cater for craft, technician and diploma levels. New TVET trades such electronics/electronic installation, refrigeration; computer maintenance/assembly etc should also be incorporated in the curriculum of offering a relevant and diversified TVET curriculum.
- Support staff training targeting upgrading of skills of the directorate in curriculum design, development, implementation, innovation and evaluation. The training should cover all the fields of curriculum i.e. Formal Education and Non-formal education (especially TVET). The directorate recommended that the director should be trained in management of curriculum and co-ordination. The assistant directors on the other hand require capacity building in textbook production, general education management and teacher training and pedagogy. There is also need to offer TOT training to the current pool of trainers in curriculum development so that cascade training can be adopted in training experts for the country within prevailing time and resource constraints. Their training should involve material development and vetting.
- Support the establishment of a national textbook production unit. This will enable the centre to publish textbooks and teacher guides for the primary and secondary level of education. Locally produced learning materials would be more cost effective. The unit would also enhance the sustainability of the centre through funds generated from book trade. The unit would also be very useful in reprinting of primary and secondary textbooks in Hargeisa instead of Nairobi as has been the case. There will be need to put in place a textbook production and distribution policy to guide such an initiative. The ultimate goal should be establishment of at least one bookshop in each of the six regions so as to enhance learner’s access to standardised and affordable textbooks and learning materials.
- The physical infrastructure of the centre should be expanded and adequate equipment provided for it to function effectively. A modern multi-media unit with offices, halls, seminar rooms, printing equipment, computers and printers are priority needs for the centre. The centre has adequate space for such an expansion.
- Technical assistance is also needed to strengthen the centre to be able to carry out its full mandate in curriculum development and teacher training.
d) The Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board
(i) Legal Status
- The establishment of the Somaliland National Examination and Certification Board (SNECB) has been provided for in the SLNEP of 2005. The mandate of the SNECB is stated as the assessment and certification of final examination of both public and private education institutions in the country. The board is an autonomous entity within the MoE.
- The board held its inaugural meeting in February 2006
- The board is not yet rooted in a legal framework though recommendations for enactment of an Act of Parliament to establish it have been made by the curriculum review.
(ii) Membership of the Board
The membership of the board is representative. Out of the 17 board members, 4 are drawn from the secretariat, and at least 34% must be women. The MoE has 4 representatives sitting on the board, namely the Director General, Director of Curriculum, Director of Schools and the Head of Inspectorate. There are an additional four members of the board representing universities. The parents and the community each have two representatives while the UN/NGOs have one member on the board.
(iii) Functions of the Board
Among the functions of the board is to “conduct primary, secondary, technical and such other examinations within the country as it may consider desirable in the public interest” and “award certificates or diplomas to successful candidates in such examinations.” In essence the functions of SNEC board allow it to examine and award certificates in technical and vocational education. This function has not yet been implemented though. The specific activities of the board include registration of candidates for the primary and secondary examinations, training of setters, setting examinations, production of examinations, training of education field officers- REOs and Supervisors, training of invigilators and markers, examining, marking of examinations, issuing of results, analysis of question items and results etc
(iv) Capacity Gaps of SNECB
- The National Examination Board is a relatively young institution that was launched in February, 2006.
- The examination centre is still under construction (with the support of DFID through the African education Trust) and as such the centre lacks adequate and permanent offices. The current premises being used by the board are inadequate for the estimated 150 markers. This has forced the board to take a much longer time in processing examinations. There is a memorandum of understanding between the MoE and DFID that provides for technical expertise in setting, marking and production of examinations though. The Centre being constructed will only have one hall and 3 offices which will still be inadequate giving the projected increases in candidature.
- An Act of Parliament establishing the board as a legal entity is not yet in place.
- The board does not enjoy autonomy as proposed in SLNEP.
- There is an acute shortage of staff. Only four members of staff (permanent) are at the secretariat due to resource constraints.
- The Examination Policy just like the National Education Policy as still being developed by the MoE.
- The board is currently not conducting examinations and awarding certificates or diplomas to successful candidates in TVET yet this is one of its key functions.
- The examination centre lacks basic equipment such as copy printer (has only one copy printer!), computers (only 3 of the 12 needed are available), laminators, stapling machines and office furniture.
- The current storage facilities are not secure enough- there is need for construction of a strong room to enhance safety and security of examinations and certificates.
- Staff lacks adequate training in computer. Currently staffs are only conversant with Excel and lack training in Access which may be more effective for large numbers.
- There is an immediate need to build the technical and human resource capacity of the SNECB to be able to fully functional. The board needs to be supported to start examining and awarding certificates in TVET.
- The Government should put in place a legal framework governing the board through enactment of an Act of Parliament
- Improve the computer literacy level of the secretariat
- Adequate equipment, especially copy printer, computers and stapling machines should be made available to the examination centre.
- A strong room should be built at the centre for enhanced safety and security of examinations and related documents.
3.2 Capacity Assessment of Activists Network for Disabled People
Activists Network for Disabled People (ANDP) was founded in January 2001 by a group of people with disabilities, parents, community members and rehabilitation professionals. ANDP is a Human Rights activists’ voluntary organization, non-governmental organisation that is not for profit.
The vision of ANDP is ensuring that people with disabilities enjoy equal rights and opportunities in their communities. This vision is clearly articulated in the organizational profile and constitution. The vision, mission and goal are important in the development of Somaliland since disabled people are discriminated against legally and culturally. The rating of this component was average (average score 3) partly because the vision was not seen as fully shared and understood by staff, constituency and external actors.
b) Governing Structure of ANDP
The overall management of the organization is vested in a seven-member board of directors. The membership of the board is however limited to the founders. A management committee carries out the day-to-day activities of the organization. Its composition was however not very clear leaving its effectiveness in doubt.
The rating was high (Average – 4) but in the opinion of the facilitator the organization could still be strengthened through establishment of a more devolved governing body that co-opts other members in the board to ensure perpetuity. A general assembly to which the board of directors is answerable to could enhance participatory governance of ANDP.
c) Leadership Style
Generally the leadership style of ANDP is consultative and participatory. The organization rated high in terms of actively encouraging collective decision-making processes, though it was rated averagely in its involvement of its constituents in all program activities. The constituents were not actively involved in program implementation, fundraising and monitoring. The leaders of the organization are generally chosen through collective processes. Using nominations to identify the chairperson, deputy chairperson and a secretary of the organization may not be as democratic. Available documents did not seem to show that the organization was following its constitution. The current management team has been in office for fours without holding elections after two years as stipulated in the constitution.
(d) Legal Status
The rating was very high (Overall rating- 5). ANDP has multiple registration. As an NGO it is registered with the Ministry of National Planning and it has also been registered as a school by the MoE department of NFE, since it is dealing with the education of people with disabilities (PWDs). In addditon, ANDP is duly registered with the Ministry of Justice (Office of the Attorney General) as an autonomous child rights institution as well as with the Ministry of Sports.
The overall rating on resources was low (2.7) – ANDP therefore needs immediate significant improvement in its human, financial and physical resources.
a) Human Resources
ANDP rated all the aspects of its human resources as average or low. The organization has not developed a HR manual and also because of funding limitations, certain aspects of HR such as employment of permanent staff is lacking. The organization’s board of directors are all volunteers and as such ANDP faces the usual challenge of relying on sustainability of voluntarism. ANDP’s rating of employment of permanent staff was low (1), implying that there is urgent need in this aspect.. ANDP also rated low in its ability to attract and retain qualified and relevant staff who can implement its activities. It is also unable to attract internal and external skills and capacity training of staff, including volunteers, and low level of staff motivation. For example ANDP has only two computer instructors. The instructors have undertaken 8-month training in private commercial computer training institutions and they may be only competent to handle computer training at a basic level. The training level of the catering and tailoring instructors was also very basic.
b) Financial Resources
The rating for financial resources was an average of 2.5 and as such there is need to significantly focus on this component in good time. The weakest aspect was that ANDP was not generating any income through sale of goods or services. Supporting IGAs would be useful not only in increasing the financial base of the organization but also in ensuring sustainability. ANDP also rated low (rating was 2) its ability to consistently cover its core operational costs and mobilize recurrent and regular resources.
c) Physical Resources.
This was rated equally low (Average 2.7). ANDP operates in rented premises whose lease is annual and therefore short for long term capital investment.
The organization has the basic equipment required to mount skill training in computer literacy, tailoring, catering and carpentry though maintenance has not been regular. Available computers are inadequate for the existing number of trainees. The carpentry unit has no workshop; a temporary shade could easily be put up for this purpose. In the long term ANDP should acquire land from the local authority to construct own premises.
3.2.4 Management Systems and Procedures
The management systems and procedures were rated barely above average (Average Rating was 3.4). They therefore need significant improvement in good time.
a) Human Resource Management
ANDP needs to maintain its effectiveness in ensuring that employees have a written, signed contract but should have some improvement in segregation of duties so that the few cases of overlap in members’ activities and duties are eliminated.
The human resource management areas that need significant improvement include defining of lines of authority and responsibility and ensuring that all staff understand them. For example the duties of the executive director and the management committee are blurred as is the job description of the departmental heads. Staff appraisals have not been institutionalised.
ANDP should be supported to develop a human resource manual and a personnel policy as part of capacity building under PETT.
b) Program Management
The organization was rated below average on this aspect of management systems and procedures (Average Rating, 2.1).
The organization does not have a strategic plan that could guide program implementation based on strategic planning and operational medium term strategic plans. The staff had not carried out needs assessments to prioritise activities and neither had they been trained in the undertaking of such processes. ANDP did not have a clear monitoring and evaluation system. It also rated very low in terms of recording and availing to staff program information, this was the preserve of the management committee and the board of directors.
The organization was however rated high in being able to develop fundraising plans that met the resource needs of planned activities. This rating should however be treated with caution considering that ANDP had rated itself low (Rating – 2) in terms of being consistently able to cover its core functioning costs.
c) Financial Management
Financial management was rated at 3.3 (Slightly above average).
ANDP lacks a financial management manual, with well-defined and operational internal controls and procedures. ANDP however has an accountant and the basic financial control systems are in place, including procedures of approval, banking, procurement etc. The organization rated very high in the areas of timely and accurate reporting and carrying out internal and external audits regularly thus enhancing transparency. This could be attributed to the previous support ANDP has received from development partners such as Save the Children (US), Africa Education Trust, CIDA, UNICEF and UNESCO.
3.2.5 Program Performance
a) Technical Performance Aspects
With the self rating score of 3.6 ANDP still needs significant improvement in these aspects within the pilot project period. Attention should be paid to the use of appropriate technology by purchasing of adequate computers to lower the trainee: computer ratio, equipping of the carpentry unit etc.
b) Developmental Aspects
ANDP is a community-based organization that advocates for the rights of the disabled in Somaliland and as such its rating on this aspect was expectedly above average (3.0). The weak components of this aspect included low training level/capacity of staff in community development and empowerment and lack of an M&E system that evaluates the level of services and community ownership. ANDP’s vision and mission should also be widely shared and translated practically through its activities. Work needs to be done to have the community fully involved in setting project priorities.
3.2.6 External Relations
a) General Communication Tools and Strategies
The rating on this was low (2.5). ANDP has not developed its documentation, dissemination and information sharing strategy. At the time of the OCA a brochure was being developed. Due to resource and technical capacity constraints ANDP rarely mounted campaigns to create community awareness on the plight of the disabled people. However, relationships with constituents is very good. This might mean that the current strategies, which are not documented are working very well and should therefor be documented and institutionalised.
b) Relationship with Constituents and Communities
This aspect was among the most highly rated (average rating 4.1). It therefore needs some improvement but not so urgent. ANDP advocates, lobbies and campaigns for the felt needs of the community by targeting the disabled people who are highly marginalized in Somaliland.
c) Networking within the Local NGO Sector
Local networking capacity was rated high by ANDP (Average- 4). ANDP is very good in networking with local CBOs and NGOs. For example ANDP is a member of the Somaliland National Disability Forum (SNDF) that brings together 26 organizations, to advocate for the rights of people with disabilities. It is also a member of the Somaliland Human Rights Network (SHURA) through which a call for action for people with disabilities in Somaliland has been made. The 46-member organization provides a forum for voicing issues affecting PWDs.
d) Developing Constructive Relationship with Civil Authorities
The organization rated itself above average as regards relationship with Civil Authorities in the area of its jurisdiction. ANDP has not been proactive in involving civil authorities in Puntland in its management or tapping in the potential resources that come with the corporate social responsibility of such authorities. There was also no evidence that ANDP had implemented joint projects with civic authorities although the aspect was rated high. ANDP could initiate stronger links with the civil authorities in Hargeisa just like it has with Civil Service Commission to enhance job placement for disabled trainees upon graduation. The capacity of the organization to develop networks, linkages and collaborations should therefore be strengthened.
e) Developing Collaborative Relationship with the International Community
This was also rated barely above average (Average Rating- 3.0). The organization has collaborated with a number of international development partners such as CIDA in advocacy for PWDs, DFID that supported ANDP’s proposal through which 25 tailoring machines were given to beneficiaries to start business, Progresso in awareness raising for rights of PWDs and Save the Children (US) on the Convention on the Rights of the Child Schools Assessment.
There is still need to scale up the collaborations to ensure enactment of legal framework that mainstreams PWDs in all the sectoral policies and programmes.
- The project committee including the executive director should be trained in Project Cycle Management to improve their capacity as institutional and PETT managers.
- ANDP should be supported through technical assistance to develop management manuals and policies namely, Management practice, Governance, Financial Management, Human Resource/Personnel, Service Delivery, External Relations and External Relations. The process of developing the manuals should be participatory and could be guided by the weak areas identified by the OCA.
- ANDP should consider restructuring itself with a view to making it more participatory. Options include establishment of a general assembly to which the board of directors should report or involvement of a wider constituency in the board.
- Adequate equipment should be provided for IBTVET PETT training. More computers should be purchased; the carpentry unit needs basic equipment and a temporary shade/workshop.
- Tap into the disability fund to recover some of the costs of training
- Capacity building in resource mobilization, documentation report writing and information sharing for ANDP.
- More training in accounting and financial management for the accountant.
- Support for IGAs is needed not only in increasing the financial base of the organization but also in ensuring sustainability. A production unit could be started to market some of the goods that the tailoring and carpentry units should produce for commercial purposes.
- Career guidance and mentoring should be started targeting girls so that they can venture into trades that are currently regarded as masculine e.g. electronics and fabrication.
3.3 Capacity Assessment of General Assistance and Volunteers Organization (GAVO)
The General Assistance and Volunteers Organization (GAVO) is a youth based, non-profit non-governmental organization that was formed in 1993 following long period of social strife and instability in Somaliland. GAVO’s activities initially targeted the two most vulnerable segments of the society, the mentally handicapped and street children but this has since expanded to cover the urban poor, returnees, farming communities, the entire youth community and municipality officials 4
Governance received a high rating generally (an average of 4.4). The organization needs some improvement though such an effort is not so urgent.
GAVO has a clear vision, mission, and goal that are clearly articulated in its profiles that are reviewed periodically. The vision of relieving stress, poverty and avoiding suffering in Somaliland, links well with its stated philosophy which holds that; all people deserve equality and feel the obligation of voluntarism. The goal is “to facilitate youth-both male and female on an equal basis beyond clan division to participate in voluntary development activities aimed at improving the quality of life of the community”.
However the line between GAVO as volunteer-driven organization and as a development organization is thin and may be a source of confusion in the charting of a distinct organizational direction for GAVO
b) GAVO’s Governing Structure
The governance structure in GAVO was rated fairly high (Average - 3.8). The governance and administrative structure was reviewed recently, in March 2005, to make it more consultative and inclusive. Overall, the organization has a team-based and participatory approach to management, where staff is involved in decision-making and implementation of project initiatives.
The current structure has a general assembly as the top governance and administrative structure though this structure is not yet operational and neither is it clear how the entire community would constitute itself into a body - the general assembly. The Board of Directors, made up of founder members, makes decisions while the daily running of the organization is vested in the Executive Director. Participation of women in the governance and administrative structures is very low. Follow-up mechanisms to ensure that the executive body implements decisions taken by the oversight boards are also not yet well developed by the organization.
c) Leadership Style
This also received a high rating, an average of 4.0. GAVO has a leadership structure that ensures collective decision-making. For instance advisory committees have been frequently used to consult widely with the community. Plans are in place to operationalize the general assembly that will widen the involvement of the wider community in decision-making processes.
d) Legal Status
GAVO is properly registered according to the district, regional and national regulations. It is duly registered in Berbera with the local municipality, at the regional level by the Court of Berbera and at the national level both with the State Attorney General and the Ministry of National Planning and Coordination, as “a non-political, non-profit making non-governmental organization engaged in promoting rehabilitation, reconstruction and development of Somaliland”.
The overall rating of organization’s resource capacity was 3.3. The physical resources component was the highest rated at 3.6 on average while financial resources was lowest (3.1). As such the resource capacity of the organization needs significant improvement in good time.
a) Human Resources
GAVO has a work force of 60 but only 9 (15%) are on permanent terms. Slightly over half (33) of the work force are paid a salary. Out of the 60 workers one third are volunteers. Each of the five major program areas has a professional manager in charge.
This team supports the Executive Director in the day-to-day administration of the organization.
The Executive Director possesses relevant academic and professional credential. He obtained a Diploma on management from SIDAM in Mogadishu then later another Diploma in modern management/Administration from Cambridge. His other long term trainings include: Strategic planning training from ICD (International Committee for Development), one-year organizational development training from an external consultant, full course on computer operating programs (Ms Windows 95/98, MS Office; Word, Excel, Access, Power-point, Outlook Express, etc), Municipal financial Management Training from UN-Habitat, Senior leadership training and management organized by Oxfam Canada in AMBO Ethiopia and Gender training organized by Oxfam Canada in Khartoum Ethiopia. Areas that were rated relatively low were the skills and capacity training that staffs in GAVO, including volunteers, receive internally and externally. Professional staff turnover is also very high. GAVO indicated that they would like to receive capacity building in project cycle management, resource mobilization/fundraising, monitoring and evaluation and project sustainability.
e) Financial Resources
GAVO has been successful in mobilizing resources from diversified sources such as in-kind community contributions, resources from the Diaspora and donor support, both short and medium term. The resources mobilized include recurrent ones and are regular and enough to cover the core functioning costs.
GAVO has not been able to collect membership fees or generate income internally through the sale of goods and/or services. The rating for these two components was very low and as such they need major and urgent improvement.
f) Physical Resources
Physical resources are well maintained, office assets are generally sufficient but the classrooms available for PETT training and the storage facilities are inadequate. There is only one latrine for all the trainees!
3.3.4 Management Systems and Procedures
The rating of this component was high (3.9), with human resource management and financial management being rated at an average of 4.2 and 4.1 respectively. Programme management barely above average, with a rating of 3.3.
a) Human Resource Management
In 2004/2005 Oxfam (NOVIB) supported GAVO to develop a HR manual as one of the seven administrative manuals. As such GAVO has clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility, staff have clear job descriptions in line with the personnel policy that is known to staff and which is always spelt out in their written contracts. In 2003 the organization had to split the executive committee into Board of Directors and Management Board to reduce these overlaps. But internal communication and team building tools need significant improvement.
b) Program Management
This aspect was given a slightly above average rating and was the lowest among the three aspects under Management Systems and Procedures. The areas that need attention are policies to conduct constituent’s needs and priorities assessments, regular training for staff in facilitation of needs and priorities assessment processes, ability of staff to utilize strategic plans in developing operating plans, regular reporting on results of evaluations and activities, involvement of service users in M&E and dissemination of program information to all staff.
c) Administration and Finance
GAVO has adopted a detailed financial management system with technical support from Oxfam (Novib). The financial management manual includes a comprehensive financial, procurement and inventory policies. Regular audits, both internal and external, are carried out by GAVO. Accurate and timely financial accounting and reporting has been institutionalized. As such the financial management component is strong and in the opinion of the facilitator the good rating given to it seems to be realistic.
3.3.5 Program Performance
Program performance was given an average rating of 4.5, an indication of high organizational capacity in this aspect.
a) Technical Performance Aspects
It recorded a very high score (Average- 4.6). Given that GAVO has concentrated on the most vulnerable segments of the society, the mentally handicapped and street children, an initiative that was home grown and community-led, the community recognizes the value of the work they carry out. As a volunteer organization that promotes inter-clan youth participation community acceptance is easier as it addresses the felt need in the community of addressing inter-clan conflict that distress the Somaliland community. Community ownership has been promoted through, among other things, wider consultations with the community and respect for community views and values.
b) Developmental Aspects
The rating on this was an average of 4.3. GAVO believes the richest in involving the local community in setting the priorities for the projects and it has tapped resources, ideas and support from the community in a number of ways. Traditional institutions such as religious groups, clan leaders and elders have also involved successfully in the various activities carried out by GAVO.
The facilitator was of the opinion that the M&E system is not as participatory and as such the rating on involvement of constituents in the entire project cycle was not in line with the practice.
3.3.6 External Relations
From the self-rating and discussions with the management team and staff at GAVO, this was the strongest area of capacity in the organization.
a) General Communication Tools and Strategies
This aspect obtained the maximum rating of 5.
The organization is very strong in documentation, publication of information and public relations. Oxfam (NOVIB) has supported the development of an external relations manual. The communication tools were varied and included published books, pamphlets, flyers and brochures.
b) Relationship with Constituents and Communities
The rating was very high. The organization has very strong roots in the community and is able to generate resources a significant amount of resources from the community such as market vendors, fuel dealers, livestock traders and small scale business people. In fact, GAVO has a well-designed and functional local fundraising program, which not only promotes self-reliance but also serves to strengthen its relationship with the community.
c) Networking within the Local NGO Sector
All the components of this aspect were given the highest rating possible. The facilitator’s opinion is that the rating is realistic as GAVO has very strong networks locally. GAVO is a member of Somaliland National HIV/AIDS Network (SAHAN), Somaliland National Youth Organization (SONYO). It is also a member of the task force on the promotion of community radios in Africa. GAVO networks with local NGOs such as Horn of Africa Youth Voluntary Organization (HAVOYOCO) through which exposure visits and sharing of experiences is enhanced.
d) Developing Constructive Relationships with Civil Authorities
There overall rating on this was above average (3.8). GAVO works closely with the line ministries. It has a 5-year agreement (2004-2007) with the Ministry of Health for the National Mental Health Program that involves building the capacity of the staff working in the mental hospitals in Berbera and Hargeisa. It also collaborates with the MoE. The MoE is represented on GAVO’s management committee. The organization also collaborates with Berbera and Hargeisa municipalities in implementation of market rehabilitation, dry waste management and land management projects. Due to the strong collaboration with local authorities, Berbera Municipality pays the electricity and water bills for GAVO.
There is still need to make improvements in these components by expanding local networks, especially with the civil society and the central government.
e) Developing Collaborative Relationship with the International Community
GAVO rated very high in this aspect as it has several international development partners and has attended several training seminars organized by the international community. GAVO’s international partners include Oxfam- Canada, Oxfam-Novib, Forum-SYD, UNICEF, SORAG, WHO, WFP, Comic Relief, ACTION NORSUD, CARE and UN-HABITAT.
Training of the management on project cycle management is necessary to enhance their management capacity.
- The Assistant Financial Officer needs training in financial management, office administration and record keeping
- The Technical and Vocational Education section needs adequate teaching learning materials especially classrooms, latrines and office furniture. Expansion of the unit is an immediate need.
3.4 Capacity Assessment of Hargeisa Technical Institute
Hargeisa Technical Institute was one of the two post primary TVET institutions established in Somaliland the 1950s, during the British colonial period. At that time the institute was known as Hargeisa Technical/Vocational Education and Training Institute offered courses in carpentry, masonry, quantity surveying, metal works, and draftsman and design for civil and building technicians.
The other national institution is in Burao, the Burao Technical Institute that teaches mechanical, electrical, and automotive mechanic skills.
All physical infrastructure, the equipment, and machines in both institutes were looted and destroyed, and the buildings were badly damaged during the civil war of 1988-1991.
In 1995 the National Demobilization Commission (NDC) received support from GTZ to purchase equipment/ tools, rehabilitate offices, classrooms, and one workshop, for training youth militias on electricity. GTZ pulled out of Somaliland in 1997 and the NDC could not sustain the training programme. The equipment and facilities acquired were said to be available for future training programmes if external support were available.
3.4.2 Status of the Institute
- Over half of the facilities of the institute have been renovated by GTZ and ISF.
- There have been various attempts made by the government and the international community to have Hargeisa Technical Institute re-established as a state TVET institution and a first step in starting technical institutes in all the regions of Somaliland.
- It is clear that the political good will exists, the President himself was keen on the initiative and there have been frequent enquiries to PETT lead agency from the Prime Minister on the issue.
- Currently part of the centre is being used by Integrated Adult Education Centre (IAEC) and it would be easy to enrol trainees immediately a decision is reached on the current lease between IAEC and the MoE.
- At the time of OCA the NFE department of the ministry of education had not identified a professional who was to steer the process although his terms of reference had not be spelt out nor an appointment letter issued.
- Mounting of courses in Office management, computer skills, plumbing and electricity can be done immediately if the IAEC equipment are hired or purchased by the MoE.
3.4.3 Available Facilities
The feasibility study established the following facilities as existing at the Institute:
- Management/office block (5 renovated rooms, 1 used for typing/computing course),
- Theory classroom block (5 renovated classrooms),
- Electricity & plumbing block (4 renovated workshops with teachers’ offices and stores),
- Electricity block (2 renovated workshops with teachers’ office and store),
- Toilet blocks (2 renovated, 1 unrenovated),
- Theory classroom/workshop block (2 rooms unrenovated, 1 renovated classroom),
- Theory classroom/workshop block (1 renovated classroom, 2 rooms unrenovated)
- Former dormitory/classroom block (2 rooms unrenovated, one partially renovated to house a generator),
- workshop block (partially derelict, potentially 2 workshops, classroom and store)
- stores (2 buildings, un-renovated)
- Partial electricity/water supplies.
- There is an urgent need to fast track the re-establishment of Hargeisa Technical Institute as a centre of excellence in TVET in Somaliland. In the short term the centre could officer training in trades whose facilities and infrastructure are readily available. The long-term goal should be to transform the institute into a national polytechnic or technical university that will train Somaliland’s technical human resource at certificate, diploma and degree level. External support is critical considering the enormous resources required and the priority accorded to the institute in Somaliland’s development in general and the reconstruction of public TVET in particular.
- It is imperative that partners come into a common understanding on the objectives of the project including budget provisions and expectations.
- The MoE should move fast and put in place modalities for making the institute functional including taking a final decision on the lease with IAEC, assessment of infrastructure at the centre, rehabilitation of the centre, equipping of the centre. Staffing and recruitment of trainees.
- Support should be given to the MoE to evolve a strategic plan that will guide the development of the Institute in line with the SLNEP. This recommendation presupposes that the NFE department will be having an operational TVET unit, a curriculum is in place and technical teacher training is being done.
4.0 Training Plan for Partners
Given the capacity status of the Ministry of Education, local implementing partners and the IBTVET centres in Somaliland there is need to mount training that would boost their effectiveness and enhance project delivery and sustainability. Each of the organisations seems to have fairy different capacity gaps and the training may need to separately target the felt needs. In house training may be preferred.
The training plan is presented in the table below.
1. Staff training targeting upgrading of skills of the directorate in curriculum design, development, implementation, innovation and evaluation for Non-formal education (especially TVET) 2. Management of Education in general 3. Supervision and Quality Assurance for TVET 4. Training of Trainers/mentors in TVET 5. Education Management Information System( EMIS) 6. Textbook and material development and production Ministry of Education and Key Departments 7. Internal Systems, Policies and Procedures (ISSP): Development of Governance, Human Resource, Sustainability, External Relations, Financial Management and other management manuals ANDP 1. Project committee including the executive director should be trained in Project Cycle Management. 2. Leadership/Board management 3. Fundraising 4. Advocacy, Campaigning and Lobbying skills GAVO 1. Project Cycle Management 2. Project cycle management, 3. Resource mobilization/fundraising, 4. Project sustainability. 5. Financial management, office administration and record keeping training for the Assistant Financial Officer ANNEXES Annex 1: List of People Consulted1. Molla Asnake Programme Manager, Save the Children Denmark 2. Stephen Ndichu PETT Project Coordinator, Save the Children Denmark 3. Abdirahman Abdi PETT Project Officer, Save the Children Denmark 4. Ibrahim Sheikh Musa Director General, MoE, Somaliland 5. Hussein Dahir Director, NFE Dept. MoE, Somaliland 6. Abdillahi Yasin Deria Director of Curriculum and Training, MoE, Somaliland 7. Abdillahi Issa Delegate, NFE Dept. MoE, Somaliland 8. Jama Ibrahim Awed Finance Officer , ANDP 9. Mukhtar Hassan Program Officer, ANDP 10. Osman Ahmed Chairperson, ANDP 11. Farhan Haibe Executive Director, GAVO 12. Ahmed Hersi BoD Member, GAVO 13. Abdihakim Ahamed CARE- INTERNATIONAL, Somaliland 14. Daud Farah Chairperson, Somaliland National Examination Board 15. Hassan Kalinle Head, Primary Section, Somaliland National Examination Board 16. Mohamed Abdi Head, Data and Research, Somaliland National Examination Board Annex 2: GAVO Organizational Structure Public Relation Section Accounting Section Office Administration Section Administrator Public Relation Officer Accountant Secretary Driver Watchmen Cashier Cleaner Administration Department Annex 3: The ANDP Organizational Structure ADMIN & FINANCE DEPARTMENT GENDER DEVELOPME Programmes Department BOARD OF DIRECTORS Education and Skill Training Advocacy and awareness Raising EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR ANNEX 4: Operational Rating of GAVO and ANDP 1. GOVERNANCE (Total Average Rating – 4.4) Rating by organisation GAVO ANDP 1.1 Vision/Commitment a) The organization has a clear vision linked to the role of an NGO in the development of the country ? ? b) The organization has a clear mandate/mission statement ? ? c) The vision and the mandate are shared and understood by leaders and staff ? ? d) The organization communicates about the vision with constituency and other external actors ? ? e) The vision is clearly articulated in a written document ? ? Part 1.1 –average score (4.4) 1.2 Governing Structure of the Organization a) The organization has a collectively leadership/power is shared in actuality by several bodies or persons, with specific roles and functions ? ? b) A collective governing body is responsible for keeping the organization’s activities in line with its vision and mission ? ? c) A collective governing body oversees the management of the organizations (is responsible for the formulation of policies and of operational strategies, represents the organization in its legal and public relations with the outside, leads its fundraising and lobbying activities) ? ? d) The various roles, functions and duties are described clearly in a written document and understood clearly by all leaders ? ? e) The leaders of the organization have relevant and varied qualifications and are available to fulfill their roles and duties ? ? f) The organization has follow up mechanisms to ensure that the executive body implements the decisions taken by the overseeing bodies ? ? Part 1.2 - Average Score (3.8) 1.3 Leadership Style a) The leadership style actively encourages collective decision-making processes ? ? b) Leaders encourage actively the involvement of the constituents in all program activities ? ? c) The leaders of the organization are chosen through collective processes ? ? Part 1.3 - Average Score (4.3) 1.4 Legal Status a) The organization is properly registered according to local regulations ? ? Part 1.4 Average Score (5) 2. RESOURCES ( ) 2.1 Human Resources a) The organization employs permanent staff ? ? b) Enough qualified and relevant (appropriate gender and personal background) persons (staff and volunteers) can be mobilized to implement activities satisfactorily ? ? c) The staff and volunteers receive skills and capacity training (internal and external) ? ? d) The organization is able to keep its trained and competent staff: staff turn over is low ? ? e) The staff and volunteers are motivated by their work ? ? Part 2.1 Average Score (3.2) 2.2 Financial Resources a) The organization is able to mobilize diversified resources ? ? b) The organization collects membership fees ? ? c) The organization collects local donations (including from the Diaspora and the Government) in cash and in kind ? ? d) The organization generates income through the sale of goods and/or services ? ? e) The organization is consistently able to cover its core functioning costs ? ? f) Part of the resources mobilized are recurrent and regular ? ? Part 2.2 - Average Score (3.1) 2.3 Physical Resources a) The equipment, assets and vehicle (s) are in good condition and maintained regularly ? ? b) The organization has relevant and sufficient office assets for its activities ? ? c) The organization has relevant and sufficient equipment/machines in link with its activities ? ? Part 2.3 - Average Score (3.6) 3. MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS & PROCEDURES 3.1 Human Resource Management a) The lines of authority and responsibility in the organization are clearly defined and understood by all staff ? ? b) Each staff member has a clear and updated job description (corresponding to the person’s actual duties and activities in the team) ? ? c) Team member activities and duties do not overlap ? ? d) Segregation of duties applies where necessary ? ? e) The organization has a written personnel policy; staff knows its contents ? ? f) Every employee has a written, signed contract ? ? g) Regular and fair evaluations of staff performance are carried out ? ? h) The organization uses effective coordination, internal communication and team building tools and procedures ? i) The organization has effective ways of sustaining staff motivation ? ? j) The organization has effective ways of sustaining staff motivation ? ? Part 3.1 - Average Score (4.2) 3.2 Program Management a) Policies and tools to conduct constituents’ needs and priorities assessments exist in the organization and are used on a regular basis ? ? b) These assessment exercises involve fully the constituents and other stakeholders concerned ? ? c) Staff members receive training in facilitation of needs and priorities assessment processes and use of appropriate tools ? ? d) The strategic planning processes are under the responsibility of a governing body keeping the programs in line with the organization’s mission and values and with the needs and priorities expressed by the constituents and community ? ? e) Staff is able to utilize strategic plan to develop operating plans; operating plans reflect the strategic planning ? ? f) Fund raising plans are developed to meet the resource needs of planned activities ? ? g) The organization has a Monitoring and Evaluation system and uses it on a regular basis ? ? h) M&E exercises always involve the services’ users ? ? i) Program information is recorded and available to all staff ? ? j) The organization regularly reports on activities and results of evaluations ? ? Part 3.2 - Average Score (3.3) 3.3 Administration & Finance a) Administrative procedures exist and are compiled in an operating manual ? ? b) Relevant staff has been trained properly in using the operating manual ? ? c) The administrative procedures are known to all concerned staff and used ? ? d) The organization uses a proper accounting and cash management system ? ? e) Budgeting is done regularly; an effective budget control and follow up system is in place ? ? f) Financial reporting is accurate and timely ? ? g) Internal and External financial audits are carried out regularly to ensure transparency. ? ? Part 3.3 - Average Score (4.1) 4.PROGRAM PERFORMANCE 4.1 Technical Performance Aspects a) The organization is able to maintain a consistently good technical quality for the services delivered ? ? b) The constituents and/or the community recognize the value of the work carried out by the organization in the community ? ? c) The organization uses appropriate technology ? ? d) The delivery of services is organized to meet needs at appropriate times of the community life and to respect planning dates ad deadlines ? ? e) The delivery of service is cost effective ? ? Part 4.1 - Average Score (4.6) 4.2 Development Aspects a) Priorities for projects to be carried out in a community are set by the community members and/or the organization’s constituents in the community ? ? b) The organization systematically works on the building community ownership for projects, throughout the project cycle ? ? c) The organization systematically encourages and organizes constituents’ involvement and participation in project, throughout the project cycle ? ? d) The organization actively seeks to translate its vision and values into practical ways to implement activities with constituents ? ? e) The organization provides its staff with appropriate training in community development and empowerment tools and practices ? ? f) The organization’s M&E tools clearly seek to evaluate the project beyond their technical aspects and include users’ evaluation of relevance of services, level of services. Level of constituents and community ownership reached, etc ? ? Part 4.2 – Average Score (4.3) 5. EXTERNAL RELATIONS 5.1 General Communication Tools and Strategies a) The organization publishes and disseminates towards its partners or potential partners information and communication items ? ? b) The organization carries out public relations or community awareness campaigns regarding its activities ? ? Part 5.1 – Average Score (5) 5.2 Relationship with Constituents and Communities a) The organization’s members have specific links with the constituents and their community ? ? b) The organization works consistently with the same constituents/in the same communities and develops long term relationships with them ? ? c) The organization contributes to building the awareness of its constituents and/or their community about development issues ? ? d) The organization devotes time and resources to communicating with constituents and community during and outside project implementation and ensures transparency of activities ? ? e) The organization is able to attract resources from the community to carry out its activities (expertise, influence, contributions in cash and kind, voluntary work, etc) ? ? f) The organization advocates and lobbies for the community’s needs and interests ? ? g) The community sees the organization as contributing to its long term development and not as a private contractor ? ? Part 5.2 – Average Score (5) 5.3 Networking within the Local NGO Sector a) The organization is member of a registered umbrella ? ? b) The organization is a member of an informal LNGO network, group and meets regularly ? ? C) The organization is active in networking activities ? ? Part 5.3 – Average Score (5) 5.4 Developing Constructive Relationship with Civil Authorities a) The organization follows up the relevant line Ministries’ technical recommendation in its project activities ? ? b) The organization seeks or accepts direct collaboration with the relevant Line Ministry or Local Authorities (Regional, District or Municipality Authorities) for the implementation of some projects (joint projects) ? ? c) The organization participates to communication and mutual understanding efforts between Civil Society sector and civil authorities ? ? d) The organization participates in the efforts of LNGOs’ umbrella lobbying for the official recognition of LNGOs in the legal frame of Somaliland ? ? e) The organization participates in the Civil Society sectors contributions to the democratization process in Somaliland ? ? f) The organization seeks to involve National/Local Authorities’ members in its membership or Board or through other ways ? ? Part 5.4 – Average Score (3.8) 5.5 Developing Collaborative Relationship with the International Community a) The organization participates in one/several Sectoral Working Groups for coordination of project activities ? ? b) The organization contributes to the umbrellas’ efforts to advocate for LNGOs among the INGOs ? ? c) The organization is involved in partnership relationship with one/several donor (s) ? ? d) The organization attends relevant training seminars organized by International Community ? ? Part 5.5 – Average Score (4.8) Legend Code Rating Interpretation Strongly disagree Needs major and urgent improvement in all areas 2 Disagree Needs major and urgent improvement in most areas 3 Somewhat agree Needs significant improvement in good time 4 Agree Needs some improvement but not so urgent 5 Strongly Agree Needs to maintain current levels of effectiveness Annex 5: List of Skills Required In Burao City Requires In Order of Priority 1. Electronic Technicians (including TV, Photocopier, Coffee machine, and mobile) 2. Lab technician/assistants 3. Animal Husbandry 4. Network and Hardware repairs. 5. Accounts and Billing Systems. 6. Midwifery and nursing. 7. Electricians (i.e. highly-trained and quality –conscious Electricians) 8. Aluminium Fitters. 9. Automobile Electricity skill. 10. Secretarial and Office Management. 11. Sanitation Plumbers. 12. Telephone Technicians. 13. Refrigeration System Technicians. 14. Tailoring, Measurement and cutting. 15. Female Video Camera Operators. 16. Software Technicians. 17. Home Made Sweets. 18. Cooking and Nutrition. 19. Auto Mechanics (especially for automatic vehicles) 20. Carpentry. 21. Masonry. 22. Title-Makers. 23. Pottery. 24. Solar Technicians. 25. Hotel management. 26. Computer programmers. 27. Making Traditional Artefacts. Annex 6: List of Skills Required in Berbera City in Order of Priority 1. Network and hardware repairs 2. Refrigeration System Technicians 3. Lab Technicians 4. Midwifery and Nursing 5. Electronic Technicians (including TV, Photocopier, Coffee machine, and mobile) 6. Fishing 7. Salt making 8. Secretarial and office Management 9. Accounts and billing systems 10. Tailoring, Measurements and cutting 11. Telephone technicians 12. Female video camera operators 13. Software Technicians 14. Aluminium fitters 15. Automobile electrical skills 16. Home made sweets 17. Electricians* (i.e. highly-trained and quality-conscious electricians) 18. Sanitation Plumbers 19. Auto Mechanics (especially for automatic vehicles) 20. Solar Technicians 21. Carpentry 22. Cooking and Nutrition 23. Computer programmers 24. Making Traditional Artefacts 25. Tile makers 26. Poetry 27. Masonry Source: Employment promotion services, SCD, Berboa (2006)
3 (Ibrahim Sheikh Musa, Director General MoE Somaliland, Personal interview, 19th March 2006)
4 (GAVO Organizational Profile, March 2005 and March 2006).