Somaliland Cyberspace

Somalia: Governance & Poverty Reduction, Economic and Social Recovery

Source:UNDP, 2004



Somalia is suffering from years of conflict, shortage of skilled human resources, fragile economic and financial base and inability to deliver basic services efficiently and effectively. Throughout Somalia, there is a low level of service delivery in administrative, financial and technical services; therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen all the three areas, especially at the local level.

UNDP is building upon the peace, stability and the democratization process that is underway in Somaliland, Puntland and pockets of stability in the central and south zones, working with emergent institutions to engage popular participation, respect human rights, gender equality, the rule of law and are publicly accountable.

Also, following the positive conclusion of the Somali National Reconciliation Conference under the auspices of the Inter Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and held in Kenya, UNDP envisages incremental engagement specifically in peace building and strengthening institutions at central level for Somalia.

HIV/AIDS - part of LICUS


In recognition of the threat posed by the emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic, the international development community, in close collaboration with local partners and authorities, has embarked on a coordinated process to build an effective and proactive response to HIV/AIDS. This joint vision culminates in the `Strategic Framework for the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS and STIs Within Somali Populations' and supporting zonal plans of action, developed in 2003 under the auspices of the Somalia Aid Coordination Body's HIV/AIDS Working Group and endorsed by all health authorities that existed in Somalia at that time. The strategic framework has subsequently been successfully translated into a five-year application to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM).


* To ensure political commitment to a comprehensive HIV/AIDS response and the protection of vulnerable population groups through leadership advocacy, sensitisation and capacity building

* To develop laws, policies and guidelines for the protection of vulnerable groups.

* To mobilise and facilitate the ability of high-risk population groups to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic


* Advocacy and capacity building for leaders at all levels (including religious, political and community leaders, policy makers, women, youth, law enforcement officers)

* Support to development of policies, guidelines and laws for the protection of vulnerable groups

* HIV/AIDS awareness raising and community mobilisation for IDPs, returnees, migrants and their host communities through targeted sensitisation and behaviour change communication interventions

* HIV/AIDS in the workplace programme


* Building leadership skills: Multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS advocacy and awareness raising workshops for leaders in all 3 zones of Somalia: Training of trainers, subsequent workshops facilitated by trained trainers. Workshop participants include political, community, religious leaders, youth, women, and the media.

* Resource Mobilisation:

* Support to the Global Fund application

* Resource Mobilisation Roundtable

* Support to HIV/AIDS resource centres: provision of equipment and documents

* Support to UNDP Religious leaders and HIV/AIDS initiative in the Arab States


* Support and strengthen coordination structures; ensuring a multisectoral response and the participation of civil society: and to build and nurture highest level sustained national leadership and ownership of the response. This will require sensitisation and nurturing relationships with a number of constituencies and authorities to ensure political commitment at all levels.

* Increase current awareness of HIV/AIDS; fight stigma and discrimination

* Improve human resource capacity for a multisectoral HIV/AIDS response

Public Administration


Somalia is suffering from shortage of skilled human resources, fragile economic and financial base and inability to deliver basic services efficiently and effectively. Throughout Somalia, there is a low level of service delivery in administrative, financial and technical services; therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen all the three areas, especially at the local level.


To enhance the delivery of basic services in public institutions through training, institutional capacity building and public sector reform. By conducting civil service reform such that the civil service is based on professionalism, transparency and accountability are increased, as well as increased training for mid and senior management.


* Rehabilitation of the Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in Somaliland development of curricula

* Supporting civil sector reform

* Establish management structure for Institute for Sustainability


* Establishment of an Institute of Public Administration (IPA) in Somaliland

* Supported the preparation and finalisation of the first Development Plan for Northwest Somalia (Somaliland), the `Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy 2004 - 2006'

* Published Somaliland Chamber of Commerce Directory, providing a comprehensive list of products, services as well as public and private institutions


Obsoleteness of managerial, technical and administrative cadres due to lengthy disruption of academic institutions, emigration of skilled human resources, overstaffing of institutions resulting in high recurrent costs and low productivity. Overcoming these problems, at a time in which social tensions remain high and employment conditions insecure, poses another major challenge in the rebuilding of governance.

Local Governance - Supporting selected central ministries and legislative branch


With the breakdown of all the administrative structures during the Somalia civil war, there is a pressing need to rebuild democratic institutions and develop a culture of service delivery and fair representation of constituents.


* Establishing and strengthening Planning, Coordination and Technical units in the Ministries of Planning and Coordination;

* Provide support to the legislative branch of the government - strengthening the internal organisation of the legislature, training of members on issues related to their jobs and professional skill development, promoting and empowering women legislatures, and promotion of Sustainable Human Development in legislative deliberations


* Support to legislative bodies, particularly through exposure to other African systems of decentralized governance for the "Guurti"/ Upper House of Somaliland

* Rural land registration and cadastre established in Somaliland under the Ministry of Agriculture

* Somaliland Ministry of Planning needs assessment being carried out to strengthen its strategic economic planning capacity

* Training courses in Law and Business Administration for civil servants aimed at skills re-qualification at the University of Hargeisa


* Training and study tours organised for Somaliland women leaders to Kampala, Uganda and traditional elders (leaders) to Pretoria, South Africa

* Finalised Cadastral Survey in Gabiley in Somaliland, and underway in Boroma district. The survey provides title ownership to the farmers, reducing conflict

* Recommendations on parliamentary functions and procedures provided to national authorities developed and MPs trained.


Resistance to the discussion or even inclusion of women's issues in the political arena.

Urban sector support


As urban populations grow, it is essential for municipalities to manage the resources at their disposal and develop planning mechanisms that inform by-laws and taxation rates.


Building capacity of the local government to enhance service delivery and improving urban planning and land management by conducting and training local personnel to conduct land surveys.


* Land Management Information System survey of Hargeisa city being undertaken

* Translation of the Hargeisa City Charter into Somali

* Rehabilitation work of the Hargeisa/Boroma/Hudur Municipal Buildings

* Application of Geographic Information System (GIS)


* Developed the first ever City Charter for Hargeisa, Somaliland and translated into Somali

* Hargeisa Land Survey in progress for urban planning and setting of tax rates

* Digitising of Hargeisa base map completed.

* Hargeisa Municipal Building rehabilitation ongoing

* Assessment done for the possible rehabilitation of the Boroma Municipal Building, design completed and approved by Municipality

* Land management study for Puntland completed

* Assessment done for the possible rehabilitation of the Hudur administrative compound.

* Project component for resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) developed


The return of refugees and internally displaced persons to areas such as Hargeisa has placed the limited resources of the local authorities under a lot of pressure. The returnees' unwillingness to move and the inadequate capacity and resources of the local authorities make urban planning difficult.

Information Communication Technology


The level of ICT usage in the country is low, but with clear development potentials associated with the presence of several telecom companies and Internet cafes. UNDP aims to support academic institutions in building research capacities and enhancing diffusion of knowledge and assist administrations in the development of ICT policies and strategies, and the formulation of a telecom law and a regulatory body.


Bridging the digital divide by increasing access and utilisation of relevant information technology for development.

By providing IT support infrastructure to relevant ministries and institutions; building capacity of personnel to utilise information technology; training media professionals and other communication providers; supporting educational institutions, strengthening professional standards and monitoring use of resources provided.


* Assessing the state of ICT in Somalia and formation of proposal for the development of ICT expressing stakeholder consensus

* Development of a project document to strengthen ICT for development in Somalia

* Assisting administrations in the development of ICT policies and strategies, and the formulation of a telecom law and a regulatory body.


* Creation and publishing of a geographic Atlas for Somalis

* Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) system installed in Somaliland connection nodes with Ministry of Planning, University of Hargeisa, President's compound

* VSAT system installed at the Somali Institute of Management and Administration Development (SIMAD) in Mogadishu

* Provision of print shop to Somaliland local administration


* The level of ICT infrastructure in Somalia is low, and concentrated in few urban centres. Staff with up-to-date technical skills, including basic computer use can be hard to find. However, the private sector has been active in increasing access to communication technology.

Civil society


Civil society organisations in Somalia have evolved in varying degrees of cohesion and effectiveness, mirroring, in different regions, the parallel evolution of public institutions. What is by and large still missing is the establishment of formal participatory and consultative mechanisms, legally recognised, to ensure civic participation in decision-making and full representation of communities' voices. .


To increase public representation and participation in governance by strengthening and equipping civil society organisations


* Strengthening women's groups and their coalitions in organizational, research, advocacy work and political dialogue

* Supporting Puntland Community College

* Provision of books for institutions of higher learning in Mogadishu

* Strengthening academic and training institutions across Somalia in curricula development and their capacity to support public development efforts.


* Supported three organisations in celebrating the International Women's Day where a regional campaign against female genital mutilation (FGM) was launched

* Five-year Strategic Plan for the Puntland Community College finalised

* Re-engagement with the civil society in Mogadishu and other stable parts of Central and Southern Somalia

* Procurement of a generator for Danyille hospital in Mogadishu

* Procurement of books for Somali Institute of Management and Administration (SIMAD) in Mogadishu

* Capacity development training at SIMAD

* Procurement of books and VSAT installation for Mogadishu University

* Sponsorship of two workshops, one for the minority group Renaissance Somali Blacksmiths Union, and a conference in Hargeisa

* Supported four civil society organizations to send representatives to two international conferences

* Tuition fees payment for students at University of Hargeisa


Somalia's post independence history with its repressive structures did not allow civil society organisations to grow and participate in meaningful decision-making. Consequently civil society organisations now need formal mechanisms to help them work more closely with local authorities towards constructive goals.

CACAS - Civil Aviation Caretaker Authority for Somalia


The Civil Aviation Caretaker Authority for Somalia (CACAS), based in Nairobi, was formed in 1996 as a joint effort of UNDP and the International Civil Aviation Organisation, to ensure safe air transport over Somali airspace in the absence of a functional central government.

Due to a poor and often-unsafe road network and the seasonable availability of seaports, the airports of Somalia have become vital trading platforms and essential gateways to the country, stimulating local business, economic development, employment and communications.


To provide for the operation and maintenance of essential facilities, equipment and services for international air transport operations, including humanitarian and relief flights and local flight operations within the Mogadishu Flight Information Region (FIR - Airspace and ground facilities in Somalia), as far as feasible on a self-financing basis, in order to meet immediate requirements for safety, and to assist in the rehabilitation and development of the aviation infrastructure where feasible provided that these latter related activities are financed from sources other then air navigation charges".


* Provision of Air Traffic Services, including meteorological information, communication, rescue and fire fighting services to international and local air transport operations and at designated airports in Somalia

* Assignments to formal courses and On the Job Training for staff to improve their skills in the above areas as well as in administration and airport management

* Undertaking, and provision of technical assistance for the rehabilitation and development of the civil aviation infrastructure such as runways and air control towers.


* Operation of the Mogadishu Flight Information Centre 24 hours a day and Aerodrome Flight Information and related Safety Services at designated airports in Somalia during daylight hours. Air Traffic Controllers are providing information to aircraft flying through the airspace allocated to Somalia for the provision of aviation services and to aircraft operating into and out of airports in Somalia as well as ensuring flight coordination with the neighbouring States.

* Rehabilitation and provision of essential safety and communications equipment at airports and airstrips in Bosasso, Kalabayed, Boroma, Hargeysa, Berbera and Garoowe

* CACAS activities enable local authorities to attract international airlines to operate into Bossaso & Hargeisa and to collect revenue in form of landing fees based on the above service provisions.


The programme is primarily funded from air navigation charges applied to air operators transiting Somali airspace and landing at Somali airports. This revenue is however insufficient to meet the demands to rehabilitate, maintain and develop air transport infrastructure which is essential to humanitarian, developmental and commercial activities

Somalia: Poverty Reduction, Economic and Social Recovery



Though Somalia is consistently ranked amongst the poorest countries in the world, there has been hardly any dialogue on poverty and poverty-related issues at national or regional level.

In fact, there have been no serious efforts to study the multi-dimensional aspects of income and human poverty in Somalia, the linkages between poverty and conflict and how best pro-poor policies and strategies could be incorporated into rehabilitation and development efforts. About 43% of the Somali population are estimated to be under extreme poverty (23.5 % in urban and 53.4 % in rural and nomadic areas) having a per capita income less than US $ one (PPP) per day. The general poverty (persons having per capita income less that US $ 2 PPP per day) is estimated as 73.4 % (60.7 % urban and 79.9 % rural and nomadic). However, serious efforts to reduce extreme poverty are lacking.

Poverty Mapping, Monitoring, Analysis


With the assistance of various partners, Somalia is slowly building up data and systems to monitor and analyse income and human poverty. This is, however, challenged by lack of institutional capacity and insecurity that inhibits access to different areas of the country. UNDP supports coordination of Somali administrations and partners at a national level.


* To build the capacity of Somali administrations to collect, compile and analyse data on human poverty, inequality and vulnerability. Further, to support these administrations in assessing the impact of development programmes, as well as in their efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals.

* To conduct a comprehensive poverty diagnostic and mapping the main poverty characteristics in Somalia disaggregated by regions and social groups, to inform both the local authorities, local and international organisations working on poverty-reduction programmes.

* To explore the manifestations and dimensions of poverty in Somalia and ensure the universality of the poverty indicators specific to Somalia.

Poverty Mapping


* The poverty survey instruments were prepared and shared with partner institutions. Selection of enumerators, supervisors and facilitators and field level testing of the schedules are being undertaken. The survey is under implementation in all regions in south/central Somalia under Phase 1.

* On completion of Phase 1, the survey is proposed to be implemented in Puntland and Somaliland under Phase 2.


* The list of settlements, water sources, educational and health facilities with their geographical coordinates has been updated to minimise omissions and duplications by collecting and consolidating available data in Nairobi and in Somalia.

* Prepared a Concept Paper on Poverty Monitoring and Analysis Systems and a training manual. Supported activities related to the establishment of poverty monitoring and analysis underway;

* Identification of relevant indicators to measure and track the changes in Poverty, Vulnerability and Inequality (PVI) through a locally driven participatory process. Resulted in draft of Priority Poverty Indicators for Somalia;

* Compilation of baseline data on PVI indicators;

* A workshop was organised in Mogadishu by the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MPIC) of the Transitional National Government (TNG) in June 2004 to provide the poverty forum materials related to poverty issues, to exchange views on poverty issues by the members of the poverty forum and to review the regional experience on poverty. The participants included poverty forum members, staff of the MPIC and other line ministries, university faculty, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), women and youth associations and local media.


Conducting community-based surveys covering as many settlements as possible in Somalia is a Herculean task due to the prevailing conflict situation, the nomadic lifestyle and the clan system. The presence of a large segment of refugees and displaced population add to the challenges.

Lack of statistical capacity and limited number of trainable local human resources.

The perceived monetary gains from the implementation of the survey and expectations from the community compound the difficulties in organising the logistics and implementing the surveys. Strengthening the Poverty Forum


A number of workshops were organised in Somaliland and Central south Somalia with the participation of administrations, CBOs, academics, private sector and other development partners to discuss and debate poverty and related issues, policies and strategies and to form national/regional fora to follow up such discussions and dialogue from Somali perspective.


A training workshop was organised to integrate poverty concerns under the Millennium Development Goals to the three-year development plan formulated by the Somaliland Administration. Workshops were also organised in Mogadishu and other major towns in Central south to promote poverty dialogue and to support the emergence of poverty forums at sub-national and national levels.


In the absence of necessary institutional capacity at local level, it is a tremendous task to organise representatives from all sections of the society to promote awareness on poverty related issues and support dialogue to encourage the emergence of pro-poor policies and strategies.

Reintegration of Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons


This UNDP/UNHCR joint programme in Somalia is part of a sub-regional initiative launched by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), UNHCR and UNDP to facilitate the reintegration of uprooted populations in the Horn of Africa. The programme focuses on providing durable solutions: adequate social services and economic prospects to ensure that returnees come home to stay and reintegrate well into their communities.


Providing basic social services to meet the physical needs of returnees and the communities to which they return through the development of water, sanitation, health, education and shelter facilities and local management systems

Promoting Local Economic Development to enlarge economic opportunities in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and other private sector industries and activities

Strengthening structures of policy and governance at the local level through participatory planning, building technical capacity in project design and monitoring, developing financial and administrative management capabilities.


* Implementation of the Water Supply Project in Somalia, in partnership with UNICEF, conducting Hydro geological surveys and environmental impact assessments to drill 37 new boreholes throughout Somalia

* Following the Territorial Diagnosis and Institutional Mapping (TDIM) undertaken at community level, implementing projects for creating new economic opportunities in the main areas of settlement of vulnerable populations in Somaliland and Puntland

* Building the capacities of the Village Development Committees (VDCs) in the main areas of settlement of vulnerable populations in Somaliland and Puntland

* Catalytic role played to promote the 4Rs (Repatriation, Reintegration, Rehabilitation and reconstruction) approach: bridging potential gaps in the transition process from initial resettlement and humanitarian assistance and longer term and sustainable development programmes


* Increased household income for 180 vulnerable families in Hargeisa, 85 families in Burao and 60 families in Boroma

* Increased household income for 280 vulnerable families in rural Somaliland

* Borehole, water distribution network and water management system, including committee set up for 7,000 returnees in Koosar

* Extension of Water System to Ayaha returnee/IDPs settlement in Hargeisa

* Emergency Water projects for the main areas of repatriation in 2004 and 2005 (Lughaye and Zeylac District, Awdal Region)

* Rehabilitation of the operations theatre for the Regional Hospital in Burao

* Increased access to health, water and education for 13,000 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and returnees in Hargeisa, and 11,000 in Burao

* Construction of three community markets in the main settlement areas: Ayaha (Hargeisa), Koosar (Burao) and Harirad (Zeylac)

* Agricultural Package provided to returnees in Beer and Xaaxi (Togdheer Region)

* Vocational training for 360 returnee and IDP women in Hargeisa

* Completed assessment report on contamination in the Ayaha returnee settlement area (formerly Desert Locust Control Organisation for East Africa) (Population: 2,000) and reconstructed broken perimeter walls * Established Daami Health Centre which, in its first three months of operation, served 1,500 patients, mostly vulnerable IDPs: pregnant women and children under the age of five * Established Shibakti Health Centre for the most vulnerable IDPs settled in the outskirts of Burao

* Restocking project for vulnerable families in Borama and surrounding areas

* Completed the Territorial Diagnosis and Institutional Mapping (TDIM) for Awdal Region and opening an office in Borama to promote Local Economic Development/LED activities mainly addressing the main areas of repatriation in 2004 and 2005

* Beekeeping and Honey hunting project for 5 returnee communities in Awdal Region (Harirad, Abdulkadir, Garisa, Gargara and Garbodadar)

* Resources Centre for Local Economic Development and Appropiate Technologies established in Hargeisa in partnership with ILO

* Capacity building for 16 returnee and IDPs VDCs in Hargeisa, Borama and Burao

* Setting up Programme activities in Puntland


Ensuring the successful reintegration of returnees and internally displaced persons is a major task, and is especially challenging in communities where the resident populations already strain limited resources.

The 4Rs concept is best characterised as a process under continuous development. One of the main challenges for UNDP and the reintegration partners is to get traditionally humanitarian actors to design their activities in cooperation with other actors to create an environment where they can hook on complementary or assume responsibility for longer-term projects and sustainable development. This demands a close working relationship between the actors not only regarding planning but also implementation, focusing primarily on local actors and the effort to build their capacity.

Through the joint UNDP/UNHCR programme for reintegration of returning refugees and IDPs (RRIDP) an inter-agency mechanism to support the attainment of durable solutions for this group is in place, which also involves other UN Agencies (ILO, UNHabitat, UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO) and potentially NGOs. However donor support to this programme has been reluctant at best and thus to develop its full potential and expand to areas in South and Central Somalia, concerted action is required by agencies and donors.

Financial Services


Over 2 million Somalis directly benefit from remittances. Remittances fulfil daily subsistence needs at the household level, infuse money into the economy for investment in dozens of private enterprises, facilitate trade and commerce within Somalia and with neighbouring countries and create training and employment opportunities. Remittances comprise the total direct income for approximately 22.5% of Somalis.

With the closure of Al-Barakat in November 2001, UNDP became concerned over the implications this had on the flow of remittances and the economy they support. Since then, UNDP has been engaged with the financial services sector through the Somali Remittance Initiative and currently, the Financial Services Development Project to ensure that this lifeline of money remains open to Somalia.


To strengthen the Somali remittance sector by assisting them to increase their compliance with international financial regulations, to ensure that they become more regularized and transparent, to enhance their international reputation and to ensure that their operations maintain a consistent and compliant flow.

To create an environment conducive for the entry of a formal banking sector


1. Support to the Somali Financial Services Association (SFSA), primarily in areas of training, advocacy, business processes and public relations

2. Conduct training on anti-money laundering compliance

3. Encourage the conducting of micro-finance activities

4. Advocate on behalf of the financial services sector, assisting in the unfreezing of assets, relationship-building with host country stakeholders and raising awareness of the compliance of the sector


Publication of "A Report on Supporting Systems and Procedures for the Effective Regulation and Monitoring of Somali Financial Services Companies (Hawala)". This report has been the basis for several interventions:

1. Missions to the USA and several European countries, opening links with the government, assisting the companies better understand the financial requirements, and advocating for the Somali people on the humanitarian impact of this issue

2. Agreement on steps to prevent further closures of remittance company bank accounts in the USA with a prestigious bank

3. Collaboration by UNDP and EC-Somalia Unit in conducting feasibility study on the financial service in Somalia

4. During this feasibility study, a workshop was held in Dubai on July 22-23, primarily to discuss the possible expansion of financial services in Somalia.

5. Support for the establishment and growth of the Somali Financial Services Association

6. London Conference held on 3-4 December 2003, promoting a mutual understanding of the Somali Financial Services sector and the regulations that govern it. Major remittance companies and government regulators from five European countries were the main participants

7. Workshop held to train the SFSA members on Anti-Money Laundering (AML) compliance and to develop the SFSA Guidance for Compliance Manual

8. Due to increased progress in compliance with host country requirements and the above-mentioned advocacy intervention by UNDP, there have been no other Somali remittance company closures since Al-Barakat in 2001


Due to the global war on terror, the remittance sector is still perceived with suspicion by authorities in the United States and Europe, where there is a large Somali Diaspora. Since 2001, there has been emphasis placed on anti-money laundering and terrorist financing regulations, imparting stringent, yet varying, requirements on the companies in their host countries. Additionally, without a central government in Somalia, there is no regulatory mechanism to support the financial services sector; this absence enhances the difficulties of the companies to comply with international financial laws.

Skills Development


There is acute shortage of skilled human resources in Somalia. One of the major constraints faced by the vibrant private sector is growing scarcity of skilled persons in managerial, technical, financial and support services. A large number of professionals fled Somalia during the years of civil war and the continued conflicts. Others became economic migrants leaving a vacuum of skilled work force, and there are few incentives to return. For those left behind, there was only limited facility to improve their vocational skills. This programme is an attempt to reduce poverty by promoting skills development in the traditional and modern sectors and providing support to expand productive capacity to generate employment and increase productivity and income earning opportunities. The training and on-the-job training also produce qualified workers who can support rehabilitation, development activities and private sector growth.


To establish, strengthen and expand training facilities and improve their quality in traditional and critical sectors to meet the demand for emerging skills.


* About 300 students are undergoing vocational training at Berbera Port Training Centre (BPTC) and Bosasso Vocational Training Centre (BVTC) supported by UNDP

* A strategy note and a request for proposal (RFP) to support vocational training programmes in south/central Somalia, for vulnerable and marginalised groups in particular, are under preparation.


1. Skills development for destitute women and girls who are also victims of violence in Baidoa, south/central Somalia, in tailoring, weaving, knitting, basket making to improve livelihoods.

2. Developed a three-year management and financing plan to restructure the Berbera Port Training Centre (BPTC) and Bosasso Vocational Training Centre, currently under discussion with stakeholders for implementation.


The absence of managerial capacity within the BPTC and qualified local professionals to manage the restructuring process has been a major constraint. Progressive introduction of user fees is also a challenge, especially in Somalia, one of the poorest countries in the world. The deteriorating security conditions have also affected the implementation progress.

Private Sector Support


In more than a decade of no central government, the private sector has kept Somalia from worsening humanitarian crisis. Support to the private sector ensures that Somali initiative is harnessed, resulting in improved livelihoods and promotion of economic diversification. The programme promotes the diversification at both the household level and at the macro economic level in an attempt to reduce vulnerability and enhance opportunities for economic growth and recovery..


- To support an enabling environment for private sector growth and development by promoting quality control and certification systems, as well as institutions of economic governance.

- To undertake feasibility studies to identify investable opportunities and to accelerate economic growth, thus creating more employment and income-generating opportunities Activities

* A private sector workshop to be organised in Puntland to review and discuss a report on emerging opportunities in processing and manufacturing industries in Puntland * A workshop will be organised to review and revise the feasibility report for the development of the fisheries sector in Somalia by all stakeholders and to suggest the way forward. Similar feasibility studies are proposed for Puntland and south/central. A project to support artesian fishing in the south/central will also be considered.


* Facilitated private sector workshop in Hargeisa to explore investment opportunities in the processing and manufacturing sectors.

* Commissioned a feasibility study to examine the constraints and opportunities of the fisheries sector as a source of economic growth. The study report was prepared in consultation with all stakeholders - the fishing community, traders and entrepreneurs, Chamber of Commerce and relevant line ministries of Somaliland administrations


In the wake of recurring droughts and other shocks such as bans on livestock, economic diversification is essential to promote economic growth and reduce vulnerability.

- Promoting the fisheries sector poses a real challenge culturally, as fish is traditionally not a preferred item of food.

- Lack of transport, storage and marketing infrastructure and institutional mechanisms to ensure quality control also adversely affect the growth of this sector.

- Lack of institutional capacity and inadequate enforcement mechanisms are affecting the marine resources of Somaliland coastal waters and the economic zone.

Livestock - part of LICUS


Outbreaks of disease in livestock, notably Rift Valley Fever, and uncertainty amongst importing countries of the credibility of livestock health certification in a country with no central authority, have seriously reduced the export of livestock from Somalia. Currently there is only limited formal trade from the ports of Berbera and Bossaso though an irregular informal trade is occurring predominantly from Bossaso.


The establishment of regional livestock boards leading at a later stage to the creation of a "national" livestock body, and technical inputs intended to support the boards and the certification of livestock and livestock products for export. The stakeholder-based livestock boards are intended to provide the accountability and credibility that the importers now consider lacking. The technical inputs, such as improved laboratory diagnosis and meat hygiene will underpin the "official' accreditation process.


* Final project workshops to establish boards in Somaliland and Puntland, and recruit certification monitors.

* Boards appointed and legalized in Puntland and Somaliland, and project support activities begin (training, equipment, lab refurbishment etc).

* Stakeholder workshop in Mogadishu.

* Trial shipment of sheep to Saudi Arabia (provisional upon agreement from FAO Rome, and agreement from Saudi Arabian authorities).

* Missions to Beletweyne and other main centres to promote regional boards

* Initiate and develop contact with new government of Somalia when new Ministry of Livestock is formed.


* Mission to Somaliland and Puntland to promote formation of boards

* Contact with prospective specialist consultants

* Recruitment of a National Project Assistant Certification Monitor for northern Somalia

* Development of concept for a trial shipment of sheep from Somalia to Saudi Arabia

* National project assistant visits Mogadishu to pursue board formation


There has been slow progress in the formation of the regional boards. In part this can be attributed to the difficulties of institution building in a country with fragile or non-existent institutions, but also to varying degrees of self-interest in an industry intended to generate significant amounts of income.

Emergency Infrastructure Rehabilitation


During the years of conflict in Somalia, infrastructure such as bridges and roads were either destroyed, commandeered by militia that would extort money for their use, or left to the elements with no maintenance whatsoever. The lack of infrastructure inhibits local income generating initiatives. UNDP supports projects that could reduce risks such as flooding thus preserving the livelihoods of local communities.


* To rehabilitate infrastructure to reduce vulnerability of the poor


* A project proposal is being prepared to rehabilitate the Chinese Canal in Jowhar. Besides reducing the risk of flooding, this will contribute to large-scale irrigation of the hinterland of the Canal that could substantially contribute to the economic growth of the region.


* Emergency rehabilitation of floodgates in Jowhar, reducing the impact of flooding;

* Feasibility study to rehabilitate the Chinese Canal in Jowhar.


Management and maintenance of infrastructure pose a major challenge due to lack of institutional systems and capacity.

Sustainable Livelihoods and Drought Mitigation


Over the last four years, the drought situation continues to cause serious disruption to the food security and livelihoods of local communities in Somaliland, particularly in the Sanaag and Sool regions. This programme currently under development in close consultation and coordination with the EC and other relevant partners targets sustainable livelihoods and drought mitigation as strategy to improve food security and poverty alleviation.

Programme budget is estimated at 2.7 million. Funding will be through cost sharing. UNDP is contemplating to implement the project using a variety of arrangements such as direct execution, NGO execution through subcontracting, etc.


* To promote Income Generating Activities targeting vulnerable groups (women, IDPs, returnees and destitute) as a strategy to reduce vulnerability to droughts and increase household cash income.


* The Community-Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) interventions relating to improved pasture and fodder production provide the link between relief and development needs of the communities by providing immediate cash to purchase needed foodstuff while undertaking gainful intervention measures to enhance the pastoral livelihood system.

* Proposed intervention measures being contemplated include improvement of pasture resources (soil and water conservation, forage production), rehabilitation of water sources, introduction of income generating activities, strengthening local and national institutions for governance of local resources, and knowledge enhancement for informed decision-making.


* A stakeholders' validation workshop was organised in Hargeisa on 12 and 13 October 2004 as an opportunity for local community representatives and others to review and decide on possible strategy and substantive content of the drought responses - in terms of priority issues, interventions and the roles for the respective stakeholders. The outcome of this workshop will feed into the EC workshop to take place in Nairobi on 23 to 26 October 2004.

Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Support (QUESTS)


Qualified Expatriate Somali Technical Support (QUESTS) is UNDP's first project facilitating the transfer of Diaspora expertise to Somalia. QUESTS is a modified version of the UNDP global initiative Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN), which encourages expatriate nationals to volunteer their expertise in the service of their homelands for short periods of time. In its initial stages, QUESTS will focus on priority sectors identified by the Somali authorities and local and international humanitarian organizations, which are health, education and agriculture. QUESTS will aim to bring 10-15 volunteers in 2004 to engage in capacity building activities, training exercises and service delivery to institutions and individuals in need throughout the entire country. However, in subsequent year the number of volunteers is expected to increase. Additionally, by involving the Diaspora in the rebuilding of their country, they will raise awareness in the Diaspora about the current state of Somalia and be able to build partnerships with institutions of higher learning and health care facilities.


* To bring the skills of Somali professionals in the Diaspora to Somalia on a short-term, voluntary basis

* To reverse brain drain

* Two-way information sharing about development at home and transfer of knowledge

* To impact on lasting peace in Somalia and increased participation of the Somali Diaspora in the creation of a conducive environment for sustainable human development.


* Introduction of pilot of QUESTS project through media and identification of sound proposals from local and international institutions for the services of volunteer experts

* Create selection mechanisms for project selection

* Facilitating the return of 10-15 Somali Diaspora professional short-term volunteers per year

* Developing a website to promote the QUESTS activities

* Develop database of Somali professionals experts for QUESTS project as well as other programme interventions

* Two-way traffic of information, i.e., home and the Diaspora


* Awareness-raising brought to the project through press release publications in local media, media interviews and a presentation at the 9th Annual Somali Studies Congress and the Somali Aid Coordination Body fora

* High interest in the project is demonstrated by the large number of applicants from a diversity of individuals with varying expertise as well as geographic locations of origin within Somalia

* To date, 8 applications have been approved and contracts have been issued

* Gender and geographic diversity have played a large role in the selection process by a UNDP selection committee set-up for this purpose.


The needs in Somalia are many and the limited scope of the project is but a drop in the ocean.

Furthermore, some of the areas that need assistance and support most are areas where insecurity inhibits access even for Somalis.

Somalia Watching Brief


A Watching Brief is used as a monitoring tool by the World Bank to keep track of socio-economic developments in conflict and post-conflict countries by collecting critical macro-economic and socio-economic statistics. This assists the Bank to prepare timely and effective strategy to support post-conflict interventions when normal lending operations are resumed


* To make an overall assessment of the socio-economic conditions and to review the macro-economic situation;

* To assess impact of civic disorder and natural disasters on the provision of social services and current provision of these services;

* To establish a database containing basic socio-economic and macro-economic data;

* To build capacity of the Somali administrations to collect, compile and analyse socio-economic statistics.


* On receipt of the pending socio and macro-economic assessment and finalization of the review, a consultant will be recruited to condense the regional reports into two comprehensive overall reports.

* The compilation of administrative data will continue

* A consultant is under recruitment to conduct a needs assessment for Statistics and Information Dissemination at the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MCI), Hargeisa.

* A consultant is under recruitment to conduct a pre-study for capacity building at Ministry of National Planning and Cooperation (MNPC), Hargeisa

* A senior statistician is under recruitment to support the field surveys on crops and assist analysing the results as well as supporting on-going surveys/analysis and report writing at MNPC. The consultant will also assist in completing the analysis on the socio-economic impact of khat consumption.

* The draft up-date of Somaliland in Figures has been reviewed and under correction. If the corrected final version can be available by end September, editing, design, layout and printing could be conducted in the final quarter.

* A training module for the Director Generals (MNPC, Ministry of Planning and Statistics (MOPAS) in Puntland, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC) of the TNG) is being planned for South Africa or India.

* The settlement survey will continue in Bay, Lower Shabelle and Lower Juba and plans for expanding the survey into Puntland and Somaliland are being prepared.


1. Published the 'Socio Economic Survey for Somalia 2002' the first comprehensive demographic and household statistics on Somalia in two decades;

2. Socio- and Macro-economic Assessment Reports of the impact of the civil war in Somaliland, Puntland and South/Central zones.

3. Launch of a comprehensive socio-economic assessment initiated which examines the impact of conflict on the delivery and accessibility of social services and utilities, reviews the existing available data and identifies the data gaps pertinent to the current socio-economic development in the regions, identifies factors that impact, positively or negatively, on the social services sector, mainly health/sanitation, education, water, housing and food security, social capital etc, and compiles a comprehensive report based on the findings of the study.

4. Similarly, the first comprehensive draft reports have been received from South/central (CRD) and Puntland (PDRC) and are currently under review at UNDP/SWB.

5. MOU and CSA with the Ministry of National Planning and Cooperation (MNPC) in Somaliland in July 2004 for, the training/on-the-job training through consultancies, support to statistical data collection and the organization of workshops and seminars. A similar agreement was concluded with the Ministry of Planning and Statistics (MOPAS) in Puntland in May 2004, and with the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC) of the TNG.

6. Critical review conducted of other SWB products, including the Socio-economic Survey (SES) 2002, the Draft Technical Report on Design and Implementation of SES 2002, the Draft report on Reproductive Health Survey (RHS) 2002-3, Hargeisa Municipality Statistical Abstract and the Boroma Municipality Statistical Abstract. Comments are currently under review and will be incorporated as appropriate.

7. A Demographic and Reproductive Health household survey on gender reproductive health was undertaken for South/Central and North-west of Somalia during the first half of 2002 and for North-eastern in June 2003, targeting urban vulnerable populations, mainly internally displaced persons, returnees, refugees, migrated and domicile settlers who were affected by armed conflicts and natural disasters. The compilation and analysis of the report was concluded in June 2004, and presented at a validation workshop held by SWB in Nairobi 15-16 June 2004.


As the project covers the entire country one of the major challenges remains the fragile security situation in Somalia. For the purposes of conducting surveys most regions of Somalia remains inaccessible and/or very sensitive, which puts a major strain on the field staff conducting the surveys in this environment. In addition, the logistics surrounding travel in Somalia, in particular to remote areas remains a challenge for the implementation and monitoring of the programme.