Somaliland Cyberspace

Rehabilitating Somalia's Education Sector: The Role of UNESCO

Gonzalo Retamal
Education Adviser, UNESCO-Somalia
M. Devadoss
Education off)cer, UNESCO-Somalia
February 1994

Part I: Historical Background and Strategic Orientations

1 . The Educational system of Somalia: Lessons from the pre-war situation

1.1 Somalia before the civil war was a sparsely populated country with a population of about six million, growing at the rate of about six percent. About half of the population consisted of nomadic pastoralists whose livestock production was the mainstay of the economy, accounting for some 40 percent of the GDP and 75 percent of exports.

The bulk of recurrent government expenditures was absorbed by security needs. As a result, economic and social sectors were severely underfunded. As the World Bank stated in 1990'. "Public education is threatened with extinction as the MOE receives only about 1.5 percent of total recurrent expenditure."' Perhaps the most important indicator of the crisis of the system was the fact that Somalia had by 1987 one of the highest teacher attrition rates in the world. While the pre-service enrollment of teachers in 1981 stood at 3,376, it was down to 613 in 1984. Over 24,000 primary school teachers were trained between 1965 and 1981, but of this number only 8,122 were in service by 1984, which represents an attrition rate of 66% (or 12% per year). A World Bank/UNESCO report estimated in 1987 that "the wastage rate of regularly established teachers, at around 25% per annum could well be the highest in the world. 3

Teacher salaries in nominal terms hardly increased since 1970, while by 1987, consumer prices increased 34 times.

1.2 The crisis in the field of education was related to a general crisis in the social and economic structure of the country. Yet, the tragedy of the situation was that, from 1960 to the mid 1980s, Somalia had gone through one of the most impressive educational developments in Africa. At the time of its independence in 1960, Somalia inherited 233 primary and secondary schools from the British and Italian colonial systems.

With the adoption of Somali as a medium of instruction in 1972 and a massive literacy campaign in 1974, primary enrollments went up from 28,000 to 219,511 in 1976, to reach a peak growth of 271,704 in 1982. This enrollment rapidly declined to less than 150,000 in 1990. Secondary education that had attained an enrollment of about 65,000 declined to less than 40,000 by 1989-90.

1.3 The pre-war cost of every primary school student was US$3.5 against US$27 in 1982. Practically no investment was being made in school rehabilitation and it was calculated that the expenditure on textbooks and teaching materials was less than US$l. In 1982, the expenditure on textbooks per student had been US$6.

1.4 In the final analysis, the Somali educational system reached its nadir because of the lack of access to textbooks and teaching resources and its basic financial incapacity to keep teachers in schools and upgrade their professional qualifications.

By 1990, the primary enrollment had fallen more than 60% as compared with 1982. About one quarter of the primary schools were closed. In other words, the educational crisis in Somalia started even before the collapse of Siad Barre's regime. The emergency situation sharply accelerated the collapse (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Rise and Fall of Primary Enrolment

1.5 One of the factors that probably had the highest impact on the collapse and impedes rehabilitation is the serious damage suffered by the educational infrastructure of the country. School buildings have been completely or partially destroyed; roofs, windows, furniture and the fittings have been looted. The school buildings that are partially or completely preserved are occupied by displaced persons or clan militia. All educational records of the country have been destroyed.

The same pattern of decadence can be noted in the other factors of the educational process. Whereas the number of schools shot up from 287 in 1970 to 844 in 1975 and reached a peak of 1407 in 1980, the decline was swift. By 1985, there were no more than 644 primary schools. In this respect it is necessary to take stock of the past when analysing the issue of the rehabilitation, construction and future maintenance of schools. A UNESCO survey, carried out in several regions of the country in 1988, showed that the poor physical conditions of existing premises were a deterrent to pupils' attendance.

The survey noted that local administration and the communities were supposed to maintain the schools, but were not doing so, partly because of the difficulty in obtaining imported materials, and partly t>because the education offered was less and less 4 attractive (inexperienced teachers, lack of textbooks, etc.) .

2 . Towards a strategy of rehabilitating and Somalia's educational system

The recommendations of the World Bank for the rehabilitation of the Somali educational system in 1990 are still pertinent although the impact of war has amplified quantitatively the scope of the problem.

2.1 Teachers' remuneration and the lack of educational authority at the local, regional and national levels

The need to generate resources for the maintenance and running costs of the system cannot be overemphasized. Teachers being the main factor of sustainability of the system, remunerating them via cash or equivalent forms of payment remains the overriding problem to be solved. A new leadership of educationists has to be trained and prepared that would provide policy guidelines, administrative coordination, supervision and inspectorate capacity to emerging schools.

2.2 The need for a teaching standard in schools

Neither textbooks nor a curriculum existed in schools during the period of emergency. The need to produce textbooks and a related curriculum with special emphasis on basic education remains a priority.

2.3 The large number of untrained teachers

Teachers have been out of schools even before the war. Many of the new teachers have had no teacher training or complete secondary education.

2.4 The near-total destruction of infrastructure

Even before the civil war, owing to lack of funds, infrastructure was reduced to a pathetic condition. In the wake of the civil war, schools became victims of widespread looting and arson.

3 . Teacher remuneration and the lack of Leas (Local education a s)

3.1 At present, the issue of teacher remuneration continues to be unresolved. In the southern and central parts of the country, especially in Mogadishu and Baidoa, international NGOs pay their teachers incentives ranging from the equivalent of US$40 to US$200.

In the N.W., the N.E., and the rest of the country where the impact of external emergency assistance has been less strong, education is being self sustained by the community of parents.

The MOE (Ministry of Education) of Somaliland (N.W Somalia), being persuaded of the need to keep teacher remuneration at sustainable levels, has made a policy decision that is implemented and imposed on international agencies5. At present, teachers in the N.W. are getting on an average a remuneration that is equivalent to US$ 50-60-a level of relative sustainability.

3.2 UNESCO, in collaboration with other agencies, has been piloting ideas and strategies that can address this problem in this period of transition towards reconstruction and development. At present, a transitional solution evolved jointly by UNESCO and WFP is being piloted in Mogadishu with the expectation of developing this strategy elsewhere. The rationale behind this strategy is as follows:

* "Food for Work" (FW), plus a small contribution in cash by the community of parents, will create employment for teachers during the process of educational rehabilitation until a local public revenue system will be back in place.
* "School Feeding Programme" (SFP), consisting of "snack" or "lunch" distribution in schools is... "seen as a means to offset some or all the costs of attending schools including expenditure in books, fees, uniforms, supplies, as well as a child's forgone earnings."'
* Monetization programmes should help to put in place basic planning resources for supervision and rehabilitation of official school infrastructure under this scheme.

3.3 At present, the first stage of this programme is being initiated. UNESCO and the Permanent Education Committee of Mogadishu have appointed a team of four inspectors that has initiated the assessment of FW applications from more than 300 "educational outfits" in the city. This assessment is being done according to guidelines for implementation jointly evolved by WFP and UNESCO and a related assessment instrument developed by UNESCO-Somalia Office. The inspectors' report is subject to scrutiny by a Board of Education formed by UNESCO, WFP, UNICEF and the Permanent Education Committee of Mogadishu. The Board will assess school readiness and capacity for being granted FW for the teachers and SFP for the children and make its recommendation to WFP. Following the inspectors' report UNICEF and WFP could jointly take decisions with regard to the rehabilitation of public buildings (via monetization), improvement of school premises or supply of educational materials.

UNESCO will offer systematic training to teachers and provide textbooks to schools in order to reestablish a teaching standard. In general, through this process the members of the Board of Education will use the resources in a coordinated and rational manner, thus providing a strategy for the education sector in the rest of the country.

UNESCO and UNICEF will train the Permanent Education Committee members and promote their capacity eventually to take over as LEA.

3.4 Coordination with the UNDP/UNOSOM macro-economic planning mechanisms for collecting and channelling revenue into this transitional system should be explored in order to establish a sustainable financial strategy for the provision of education at the LEA level. Thus, the FW and/or monetization components, will be gradually phased out in favour of cash-flow provided through public revenue.

It is hoped that this process would lead to the creation of LEAS, that will take over full responsibility for the management, inspection and supervision of educational provision in a decentralized manner.

4 . UNESCO strategy.- The role of Education

4.1 UNESCO's project strategy is based on the creation of a network of Education Development Centres (EDCs) at the regional level. In general, the EDC will serve as a technical basis for bringing back the structures of educational governance at regional level. The Educes are now in the process of developing activities for the rehabilitation of educational provision at regional level(as described in paras 2.1 to 2.4) in Mogadishu, Baidoa and, from March 1994, Hargeisa. By mid-1994 it is expected that the EDC in Galbahari will also be operational.

4.2 The following are to be the immediate objectives of the UNESCO EDCS:

* To re-integrate into their specialized work the trained professionals who used to work for the Curriculum Development Centres and other experts of the MOE of Somalia in several regions of the country.
* To collect, adapt and reprint basic educational materials in Somalia.
* To prepare and develop textbooks, teacher guides, literacy and other basic educational materials (e.g., Teacher Emergency Package, TEP, which is described in paras 1 11.1. 1 to 1 1.6).
* To promote an integrated approach among agencies with regard to teachers' salaries, curriculum standards and assessment, textbook production and distribution, etc.
* To develop an in-service teacher training programme employing an Open Learning Strategy (Somali Open Learning Unit, SOMOLU, which is described in detail in paras 1 0. 1 to 1 0. 1 0).
* To collect, analyze and retrieve basic educational data for planning and monitoring of the current and future educational provision at the regional level (Mogadishu, Baidoa, Hargeisa, Galbahari, etc).
* To coordinate assistance of Educes to refugee camps in Kenya, Yemen and Ethiopia with UNHCR by providing textbooks, teacher guides, literacy materials and teacher training.

5. The need for teaching standards: Re-introduction of curriculum

5.1 By 1990, probably the most successful result of previous years of Somali Education, was the development of curriculum for basic education and the design, production and publication of textbooks and related teacher guides by the Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Mogadishu. This Centre became the de facto curriculum development department of MOE, operating with financial autonomy made possible by the permanent support of external sources.

At that time, the World Bank estimated that in order to cover the needs of the basic education enrolment, a total of 2.6 million textbooks and 100,000 teacher guides had to be produced within a period of five years. Just for the delivery of the first batch of about 300,000 textbooks in 1990, a budgetary allocation of US$ 1,139,600 was sought to be made.

5.2 Since February 1993, UNESCO-Somalia initiated the recovery of the few existent textbooks and a team of ex-CDC writers and designers began to work in the Mogadishu EDC, created by UNESCO. A set of 20 titles and related teacher guides, covering the curriculum of grades 1-4 have been re-edited and, in many cases, re-written. A consortium for developing a partnership with seven NGOS, (CARE, TROCAIRE, CISP, SCF-UK, Radda Barnen-Yemen, AMURT and IAS) working in Somalia and in the Somali refugee camps in the region, was established under the technical supervision of UNESCO. About 152,000 textbooks, at a cost of US$82,000, were produced. UNHCR-Ethiopia contributed to the second printing of 28,000 textbooks for refugee camps in that country and N.W. Somalia.

A third printing is being initiated in February 1994. The initial Consortium has expanded to include 18 Agencies. UNICEF has come into fold as UNESCO's main partner, each of the two agencies contributing US$150,000. It is expected that the Consortium's joint commitment of about US$400,000 will finance a print-order of over 800,000 textbooks. It is also expected that this joint effort will cover Somalia's textbooks' demand on a 1:4 textbook-child ratio.

A proposal on behalf of the consortium has been submitted by UNESCO to EEC for the production of stocks that will cover on a similar ratio the needs for the academic year 1994-1995.

5.3 In order to introduce systematically the revised curriculum, UNESCO has organized workshops for about 275 schools in most regions of the country. Teacher guides have been introduced to every school and textbooks for Somali and Mathematics, grades 1 and 2, from the first re-printing have been distributed on 1 :10 0 textbook-pupil ratio. From March 1994, UNESCO will initiate a second cycle for the introduction of Science/Health Education curriculum for grades 1 to 4. For details regarding implementation and coverage, see paras 9. 1 to 9.9.

With limited resources UNESCO has been able to develop at the Educes level, in Mogadishu and Baidoa, low cost materials and initiated the reintroduction of curriculum into existent schools. The need for more resources to mobilize trainers and to establish better storage and distribution capacity, remains to be met. Coordination with UNICEF along these lines is being strengthened. Common training activities have been initiated in Garoe, Iskushuban, Galcaio, Bossaso, Baidoa and Kismayo. Given the wider resource capacity of UNICEF to promote education at the grass-roots level, a special partnership for distribution of textbooks and implementation of teacher training is being developed. There will be a certain division of labour, whereby UNESCO will continue to concentrate on the actual design and production of curricular materials and introduce them at the level of "training-the-trainers." UNICEF, for its part, will promote standards and quality education at the school unit level and insure more efficient and systematic participation at the community level. The collaboration with international NGOs will continue along similar lines.

6 . The Need for teacher training (TT)

6.1 As discussed in para 1, given to attrition, teachers have been out of school from before the war. New contingents of teachers are assuming their tasks and only in Somaliland (N.W. Somalia) the MOE has been able to establish a policy for teacher recruitment based on previous qualifications and experience. According to MOE, of the 564 primary school teachers in that region 50% are untrained and only 16% are qualified. The MOE also notes that 90% of the qualified teachers remain in the cities while 80% of the unqualified teachers have been recruited in rural areas. For the rest of the country information remains scattered and unreliable. Most probably, the situation is worse than in the N.W.

6.2 In order to cope with the problem of up-grading teachers UNESCO has developed several basic training schemes the most important of which 'is SOMOLU (Somali Open Learning Unit). This programme provides in-service teacher training through open learning based on a network of tutors and Open Learning Centres in coordination with UNICEF and NGOS. The first Open Learning Centre is beginning its operations in April 1994 in Southern Mogadishu in collaboration with International Aid Sweden. For further description of UNESCO's achievements in the field of TT, refer to paras 1 0. 1 to 10.10.

6.3 Training of Headmasters and headmistresses for the introduction of curriculum is done in such a way that the head of the school becomes a "focal point" for training and a source of statistical information (see para 9.3).

6.4 Teacher Emergency Package (TEP): A special curriculum has been designed and developed for refugee camps, cross border influx of populations and new schools being initiated by communities across the country. Teachers will be trained to use the TEP materials (see paras 1 1. 1 to 1 1. 6).

6.5 Somalia Mine Awareness Campaign (SMAC): A special programme for mine-affected areas (N.W., Gedo, Galcaio and Ethiopian refugee camps) has been developed in collaboration with UNHCR. The programme and training materials have been developed by UNESCO (see paras 12.1 to 12.6).

6.6 It is also expected that literacy teachers and monitors will be trained to introduce UNESCO literacy materials. A pilot experience will be coordinated with IRC in Bardera.

7 . The near-total destruction of infrastructure

7.1 As discussed in para 1.5, the availability of schools in the country by 1990 had already drastically declined and the civil war came only to exacerbate the situation. The N.W. region had already been devastated by civil war in the years previous to the fall of Siad Barre. Today the N.W. claims that 470 classrooms have been damaged and are in need of rehabilitation. "

A UNESCO survey of the city of Mogadishu shows that of the 85 public schools that existed before the civil war (60 primary and 25 secondary), only 24 have been rehabilitated by international NGOS, specially Irish Concern and Caritas (Germany). For the rest of the country, no systematic information has been made available either by NGOs or the UNOSOM armed forces with the result that rehabilitation has taken place in a rather piecemeal basis in Belet Weyne, Bardera and Kismayo areas. No specific guidelines have been set up and construction is mainly in the hands of local contractors funded by NGOS. In very few cases local communities have made a labour and/or cash contribution. It was stated in para 1.5 that we must learn from the past experiences before launching any school rehabilitation programme. A common policy should be promoted by UN agencies and NGOs in relation to this issue. Criteria for eligibility of communities willing to rehabilitate their schools should include (()) the full community involvement in the rehabilitation process, and (ii) that rehabilitation is done using, as much as possible, locally available and upgradable materials in order to avoid mid-term physical degradation of schools.

7.2 The initiative of UNESCO to develop a survey for the assessment of school infrastructure by a special mission in February 1993 has not prospered. A simpler version of the instrument prescribed by the mission has been prepared and will be piloted through the Education Board of Mogadishu as discussed in para 3.3. The definition of a "map" for the rehabilitation of school infrastructure should be considered a priority and funding from additional sources for its implementation needs to be coordinated with the macro-planning agencies of the UN in Somalia (UNOSOM and UNDP). The collection and retrieval of this information in a computerized format is one of the immediate objectives of the UNESCO Educes at the regional level.

Part II: Achievements

Part II of this report recounts the achievements of UNESCO-Somalia to date. Section 8 deals with the restoration of curriculum, i.e., writing, editing and printing of textbooks and teacher guides. "Training of Trainers" workshops are described in Section 9. Section 1 0 is devoted to teacher training, particularly, the Somali Open Learning Unit (SOMOLU). The UNESCO Teacher Emergency Package (TEP) is the topic of Section 11. Somalia Mine Awareness Campaign (SMAC) which is a joint UNESCO-UNHCR venture and the preparations for a Somalia Education Conference are presented in Sections 12 and 13, respectively.

8 . Writing, editing and printing of textbooks and teacher guides

8.1 The rationale for the reintroduction of curriculum has been explained above in paras 5.1 to 5.3. The Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Mogadishu, had done a commendable service by effectively meeting all the textbook and teacher guide needs of the primary school system. Unfortunately, not all the titles produced by the CDC which, qualitatively, were as good as any produced in Africa, survived the Civil War. The acquisition of existing textbooks and teacher guides has been a protracted and expensive exercise.

8.2 Somali, Maths, Science, Arabic, Islamic Studies textbooks for Grades 1 through 4 have all been acquired and edited in Mogadishu EDC except Science 3 which has been edited in Baidoa EDC. The editing consisted of correcting obvious errors, removing political references in deference to the changed and sensitive political context of today and, where needed, writing/editing complete pages.

8.3 Table 1 presents the current state of affairs with regard to the teacher guides. As many as 10 titles had to be written, edited and word-processed; one title was revised. For four titles layout is being done at Baidoa and for all the rest layout was /is being done by the UNESCO EDC, Mogadishu. Printing was done on demand, a few hundred copies at a time, in the low cost printing facility that is part of the EDCs in Mogadishu and Baidoa.

8.4 In addition to textbooks and teacher guides, Somali storybooks for children have been jointly published by UNESCO-Somalia and Longman for use in schools and in the Teacher Emergency Packages. (For more information on TEP see paras 11.1 to 11.6).

8.5 No textbooks and teacher guides exist for Grades 5 through 8. in the coming months, a coordinated and systematic writing of textbooks will commence in each of the EDCs. Textbook writing workshops will be conducted in different parts of the country. As there is no textbook authority or curriculum development centre that is likely to come into existence soon, UNESCO is the only agency that is competent and capable of spearheading this massive effort.

8.6 A project proposal for the additional funding for further textbook writing, design and production is being submitted to EEC by UNESCO. Although an impressive number of textbooks has been produced and distributed (see Table 2), a study of Tables 3 and 4 would convince anyone of the need for more books. Tables 3 and 4 present only student enrollment in grades 1 through 4. Except the N.W. a complete census of schools does not exist for the rest of Somalia and the figures reported cover only those schools whose headmasters attended UNESCO workshops. Valid and reliable data could not be collected everywhere. Moreover, the total student population 173,912 (161,511 in Somalia and 12,401 in refugee camps) needs five times that number of textbooks in so far as there are five textbooks for every grade.

8.7 The teaching of English for which, understandably, there is a great demand in Somalia, once again calls for the production of textbooks. Currently, negotiations are under way for a UNESCO-Longman co-production of English primers. For use at the secondary level, English textbooks that were prepared for Somali schools by the erstwhile Ministry of Education will be reedited and published by UNESCO.

8.8 UNESCO-Somalia's adoption of a consortium strategy to pool together scarcely available sources to print and distribute an impressive number of textbooks has been discussed at length in para 5.2. The consortium strategy was inspired by the World Conference on Education for All: National, regional, and local educational authorities have a unique obligation to provide basic education for all, but they cannot be expected to supply every human, financial or organizational requirement for this task. New and revitalized partnerships at all levels will be necessary. (Jomtien, 1990, Article 7).

8.9 For a list of the original consortium members and their share in the textbook production so far, see Table 2.

Table 1: Production of Teacher Guides

Table 2: Consortium Textbooks Distribution

SOMALI 1 4000 3000 3000 1000 1000 600 1000 4800 18400
SOMALI 2 4000 3000 1000 1000 600 1000 3200 16800
SOMALI 3 4000 500 4500
SOMALI 4 4000 4000
MATHS  1 4000 30001 3000 1000 1000 600 1000 4800 19400
MATHS 2 4000 3000 3000 1000 1000 600 1000 3200 16800
MATHS 3 4000 500 4500
MATHS 4 4000 4000
SCIENC 1 4000 1000 600 1000 4800 11400
SCIENC 2 4000 1000 600 5600
SCIENC 3 4000 500 4500
SCIENC 4 4000 4000
ARABIC 1 4000 100 4800 8900
ARABIC 2 4000 100 4100
ARABIC 3 4000 100 4100
ARABIC 4 4000 4000
ISL.STU 1 3000 600 4800 8400
ISL.STU 2 3000 600 3600
ISL.STU 3 3000 3000
ISL.STU 4 3000 3000
TOTAL 76,000 12,000 12,000 7,800 4,000 4,800 5,000 30,400 152,000
Table 3: Region-wise Student Enrolment (Grades I to IV)
Benaadir 35349 31564 13133 8773 88819
Bay 5457 14983 3451 476 24367
Bari 816 504 204 110 1634
Hiran 12000 6000 304 203 18507
Mid&Lower Juba ND ND ND ND 6113
Lower Shabelle 134 31 2456 1251 3872
Nugal 863 476 331 ND 1670
Subtotal 54,619 53,558 19,879 10,813 14,4982
North West 3947 2922 1443 511 8823
Sanag 904 538 293 60 1795
Awdal 702 428 284 191 1605
Togder 2012 690 372 267 3341
Sole 392 277 169 127 965
N W Somalia 7,957 4,855 2,561 1,156 16,529
Grand Total 62,576 58,413 22,440 1 11,969 61,511
ND= No data available.
Sources: UNESCO-Somalia and the MOE of N.W. Somalia (Somaliland)

Table 4: Student Enrolment in Somali Refugee Camps

Kenya     5466 1037 844 60 7407
Djibouti   ND ND ND ND 1150
Ethiopia  2158 1093 336 257 3844
Yemen   ND ND ND ND ND
Total      7,624 2,130 1,180 317 12,401
ND =     No data available.
Sources: CARE-Kenya (1993)), UNICEF-Amman (1 993) and UNHCR-Addis (1 993).

9 . "Training of Trainers" workshops

9.1 Although schools have re-opened at the initiative of UN agencies, international and local NGOs and civic bodies, effective schooling is not taking place owing to several constraints the most important of which is the paucity of trained teachers. Several have migrated. Others have changed their occupation for reasons of survival. Even those who have returned to teaching were not teaching for the past several years. The Teachers trained at Halane Teacher Training Institute did not have a proper secondary school education to start with and therefore 95% of what they got there was a condensed form of secondary education and not teacher training strictly so called. A good percentage of those who are teaching now lack proper academic credentials. Fake diplomas are openly sold in Mogadishu's Bakara Market.

9.2 A situation like this calls for an emergency response. Before any credible form of preservice or in-service teacher training is launched, UNESCO felt that it should make available not only textbooks but also teacher guides to schools and detailed instructions as to their proper use. As it was impossible for UNESCO to train teachers directly in a short span of time, it was decided to offer a series of 6-day "Training of Trainers" workshops. It was expected that headmasters, head teachers and trainers attending these workshops would, in turn, train their teachers.

9.3 The general objective of the workshops was to offer an integrated lower elementary curriculum to the rehabilitated schools in Somalia and Somali refugee camps with special emphasis on literacy and numeracy. The specific objectives were:

* To provide guidelines on the management and proper use of textbooks by training the trainers in the use of teacher guides in relation to the textbooks.
* To instruct them in the preparation of the daily lesson plan logically based on the curriculum provided, and
* To deal with the phenomenon of overcrowded classrooms.
* To reinforce the role of headmasters as instructional leaders and "focal points" for training their own teachers and to collect from them valid and reliable data concerning their schools.

9.4 The course material provided to each participant included four textbooks and their respective teacher guides (Somali and Maths Grades 1 and 2) and a booklet each on the preparation of the daily lesson plan and the art of handling large groups of students.

9.5 Tables 5 and 6 present the information concerning workshops that UNESCO offered in the different regions of Somalia from October 1993 to February 1994. In a four-month period, 18 workshops have been conducted in which a total of 401 headmasters/head teachers/ trainers have been trained. The participants represented a constituency of 262 schools and 152,389 students. The students' strength reported might well be exaggerated because the headmasters thought that by doing so they would get more help from UNESCO and donor agencies.

Table 5: UNESCO Workshops: Consolidated Data
Region Participants Schools Students
Benaadir 174 137 88819
Bari 50 8 1634
Bay 26 26 24367
Gedo 40 10 ND
Hiran 23 17 18507
Mid&Lower Juba 16 16 6113
Lower Shabelle 12 4 3872
Mudug 25 ND ND
Nugal 25 9 1670
Kenya 35 35 7407
Total 401 262 152,389
ND = No data available.

Note: The only workshop which was organized in the Mudug Region had to be discontinued after two days owing to local problems. Data concerning total student population could not be gathered from the Mudug and Gedo Regions.

Table 6: UNESCO Workshops

Dates Region Place Participants Focal Point Organization
08/10-13/10 Benaadir N.Mogadishu 26 HMs CISP
09/10-14/10 Benaadir S.Mogadishu 27 HMs International Aid Sweden
16/10-21/10 Bay Baidoa 32 HMs UNICEF, AMURT
23/10-28/10 L. Shabelle Merca 12 HMs Caritas Italiana
07/11-13/11 Kenya 35 HMs CARE Kenya and UNHCR
23/11-24/11 Benaadir S.Mogadishu 12 HMs Concern
27/11-02/12 Benaadir N.Mogadishu 26 HMs Italforce and Hisan
29/11-01/12 Benaadir S.Mogadishu 20 teachers Caritas-Germany
04/12-09/12 Gedo Bardera 40 HMs IRRES,Trocaire,Norw Ch Aid
09/12-22112 Bay Baidoa 12 HMs Concern, GOAL, GREDA
11/12-16/12 Hiran Balet Weine 23 HMs&Asst HMs SCF,UK
18/12-23/12 Nugal Garoe 30 HMs UNICEF
11/01-13/01 Benaadir S.Mogadishu 20 teachers Caritas-Germany
22101-27/01 Bari Iskushuban 25 HMs UNICEF
22101-27/01 Benaadir S.Mogadishu 43 HMs ltalforce
29101-03/02 Mudug Gaicaio 25 HMs UNICEF
29/01-03/02 Mid&L.Juba Kismayo 30 HMs UNICEF
20/02-25/02 North Bari Bossaso 25 HMs UNICEF Abbreviations: HMs = Headmasters; L = Lower; N = North; S = South

9.6 A sample of the feedback got from the participants is given in Table 7. High levels of satisfaction were reported with regard to the matter as well as the methodology adopted by UNESCO tutors. Over 77% of participants thought that the UNESCO tutors were excellent (as opposed to 6% who considered them good, 4% who rated them moderate and 12.5% who gave no response). In an unsolicited testimonial, CARE-Kenya wrote: "This joint venture between UNESCO and CARE was an exceptional success. It had a tremendous impact on the overall objective of CARE's education programme .... Facilitator Mr. Ibrahim Jeylani Mohamed did an extremely good job."

9.7 It is worth noting in this connection that only 71.5% of those who participated in the UNESCO workshops said that they were trained teachers; 19.5% were not trained teachers and 9% did not answer affirmatively or negatively the question whether they were trained teachers. Only 39% of them had been headmasters before the Civil War.

9.8 It is expected that some of those trained by UNESCO would not only be able to train their own teachers but continue and complete the workshop cycle in their respective regions. Starting March 1994, UNESCO will offer Science/Health Education workshops from Grade 1 through Grade 4. Production of the workshop materials is nearing completion in Mogadishu and Baidoa EDCs.

9.9 A workshop on school administration has been designed and the material needed for it has been produced in Mogadishu and Baidoa. It will be offered on a trial basis to headmasters in Kismayo in the last week of February.

Figure 2: Tutors' Performance
Table 7: Participants' Feedback
Question Yes No NR
Workshop was timely 78.50 14.00 7.50
Gained useful knowledge and 89.00 1.50 9.50 information
Tutors encouraged active participation 83.00 3.00 14.00
Note: N = 200 because the questionnaire was not completed in all workshops.
NR = No Response

10. Teacher training: SOMOLU (Somali Open Leaming Unit)

10.1 The need for teacher training in Somalia has been discussed in paras 6.1 to 6.6. UNESCO has tried to meet this need on a short-term as well as long-term basis. The short-term strategy used was the organization of workshops for headmasters to introduce them to the proper use of textbooks and teacher guides. They, in turn, were supposed to introduce these curricular and pedagogic materials to their teachers.

10.2 Thanks to the short-term strategy, throughout the country, schools are not only open but, more importantly, maintain acceptable academic and curricular standards. Already during the implementation of the short-term strategy, work on the long-term strategy started.

10.3 The long-term strategy is called SOMOLU and it seeks to provide in-service training to teachers who need it. Using open learning and distance education techniques, it will offer to teacher trainees sound pedagogic and administrative training spread over 4 Units (40 Assignments). Each trainee can set his own pace and complete the training in 12 to 18 months.

10.4 On completion of the first 3 Units (30 Assignments) each trainee will be required to appear for an examination of basic academic proficiency in subject matter areas covered at the primary level before being given a Diploma in Basic Teacher Training. This Diploma and the successful completion of an introductory course in English are the requirements for proceeding to the second phase of SOMOLU which consists of one Unit (10 Assignments) dealing with educational administration and supervision. The trainees who successfully complete these 1 0 Assignments will receive a Diploma in Educational Administration and Supervision.

10.5 SOMOLU draws its inspiration from IITT (Institute of In-Service Teacher Training, Somalia) and SOLU (Sudan Open Learning Assignment). Table 1 indicates the actual state of preparation and production of the 40 Assignments that make up SOMOLU.

Table 8: Number of Completed SOMOLU Assignments
A 1-10 8 8 7 2
B 1-10 8 8 8
C 1-10
D 1-10 5 5
TOTAL 21 21 15 2

10.6 In all 21 Assignments have been written and word-processed, 15 are camera-ready and two already printed in-house in our low-cost printing facility. Moreover, the two printed Assignments have been field-tested in 18 "Training of Trainers Workshops" UNESCO-Somalia has conducted in different parts of the country from October 1993 to February 1994. The material for the introductory course in English, too, is ready for printing.

10.7 Abdi Mohamud Mohamed, a Somali educationist and ex-staff member, IITT, is the coordinator of the SOMOLU project in Mogadishu. Each of UNESCO's seven planned Education Development Centres (EDCs) in the country will have its SOMOLU coordinator.

10.8 From April 1994, SOMOLU will be offered to teachers who desire a UNESCO-approved teacher training diploma. In the absence of a working postal system, radio or other mass media only those who are in the vicinity of the UNESCO EDCs in Mogadishu, Baidoa and Hargeisa will be able to register for SOMOLU. In each centre, two resident tutors will distribute curricular materials, conduct tutorials for individuals and groups, give out, collect, correct and evaluate assignments.

10.9 A post-SOMOLU phase, too, is contemplated. As many teachers lack an academic formation up to the secondary school level, UNESCO will design an open learning package on completion of which the trainees will receive a secondary school leaving certificate.

10.10 Trainees and/or sponsoring organizations will be a charged a moderate fee to partially defray the costs of the SOMOLU programme.

11. TEP (Teacher Emergency Package)

1 1.1 TEP is a new teaching-learning tool UNESCO-Somalia has developed for use by formal and non-formal education teachers in such situations of emergency as now prevailing in Somalia. It draws its inspiration from similar materials developed in Pakistan for Afghan refugees. UNESCO-Somalia has a collection of materials generated, among others, by UNHCR, University of Nebraska, Operation Salam and GTZ/BASED.

11.2 TEP's objective is to initiate literacy and numeracy for the benefit of illiterates and, through learning and leisure-time activities, enable them to express and deal with their feelings of trauma, insecurity and loss. TEP gives a teacher and a class of 40 students what is minimally required in order that effective teaching-learning may take place. It is designed to work even where school buildings do not exist or are in a state of disrepair.

11.3 TEP comes in a blue box and a blue duffle bag. The box is strong and can serve as a seat for the teacher. It contains the following items:
* Forty slates to write on and 7 boxes of chalk to write with.
* Forty pencils, erasers, and 80 exercise books.

The blue bag contains:

* A teacher guide with day-by-day lessons for a six-month emergency literacy and numeracy programme and an activities book.
* Three Somali storybooks published jointly by UNESCO and Longman.
* Paint and brush to improvise a blackboard.
* A supply of chalk and a duster.
* Washable cloth charts displaying numbers, letters of the Somali alphabet, a multiplication table etc.
* Ten scrabble sets for 40 children to sit around and play with letters and numbers; a permanent marker to write letters and numbers on the dice.
* A measuring tape.
* An exercise book, an attendance book, a few pencils, an eraser and a pencil sharpener.

11.4 TEP is available ex-stock from February 15, 1994. Refills of consumable like chalk, pencils etc. can be ordered, when needed. While the first few hundred TEP units are made in Kenya, negotiations have been completed to produce these units in Baidoa, Somalia in collaboration with AMURT, an international NGO. Chalk, too, is being produced locally in Bardera by the International Resource Committee (IRC).

11.5 UNICEF and several NGOs have already examined the TEP prototype in UNESCOSomalia's Nairobi, Mogadishu and Baidoa offices and have indicated their requirements. In the third week of February 1994, 100 TEP will be airlifted to Hargeisa to be used jointly with UNHCR in cross border and returnee communities.

11.6 Negotiations are on with UN Lifeline, Sudan and UNICEF Regional Office in Nairobi involved in cross-border operations in southern Sudan for adaptation and translation of TEP for extensive use in Sudan.

12 SMAC (Somalia Mine Awareness Compaign)

"Of all the tasks involved in setting a nation on a new road to peace and prosperity, perhaps none has the immediate urgency of mine clearance .... No attempt to restore a sense of community and security can succeed without effective land-mine removal." --- Boutros Boutros Ghali, UN Secretary General, Report on the Work of the Organization, September 1993

12.1 An estimated 1 million mines lie buried under the soil of Somalia waiting to kill or maim with deadly precision any individual, soldier or civilian, who will tread on them. The problem is acute in N.W. Somalia and in the Gedo Region.

12.2 UNESCO and UNHCR N.W. Somalia signed an agreement dated December 11, 1993 which calls for the launching of a country-wide Somalia Mine Awareness Campaign (SMAC) in the formal and non-formal education sectors.

12.3 The production of the campaign materials in Somali which was entrusted to UNESCO EDC in Mogadishu is nearing completion. They consist of-.

* Two cloth posters, one describing the mines more commonly found in Somalia and the other containing instructions on what to do and what not to do when one spots a mine or a suspicious looking object.
* Two lessons based on the posters for use by instructors.
* Also, for instructors' use an article explaining the hazards of mines.
* Three mine awareness games which students can play.
* A pictorial pamphlet that sums up mine-related instructions that students carry away with them.

12.4 The posters are also printed on paper for public display in police stations, public buildings etc.

12.5 The SMAC material was produced by UNESCO-Somalia with the assistance and under the technical supervision of the De-mining Unit of UNOSOM III Division and VIII Psychological Operations Battalion, U S Army.

12.6 As part of UNESCO-Somalia's "Education for Peace" effort, the mine awareness material will get a wide distribution. It will also go into the Teacher Emergency Package (TEP) described in Section I 1.

13. Somalia edition France

13.1 The post-Civil War situation in Somalia called for an emergency external response in the form of Operation Restore Hope and United Nations Operation in Somalia. These short-term peace-keeping and humanitarian operations, timely and relevant though they were, must yield to a long-term nation-building project in which Somalis, as deciders of their national destiny, reintegrate and reconstruct their country, with the assistance of the international community.

13.2 The role education can and should play in this nation-building project, unfortunately, did not receive the attention it deserved in the IV Coordination Meeting on Humanitarian Assistance for Somalia held in Addis Ababa from November 29 to December 1, 1993 or in the meeting of the Somalia Standing Coordination Committee Meeting of February 1-2, 1994, Nairobi.

13.3 The main players in the field of education in Somalia today are the UN agencies, notably UNESCO and UNICEF, International and local NGOs, and civic bodies, where they exist.

13.4 On December 6, 1993, UN agencies and NGOs engaged in education work among Somali people within the country and in the refugee camps abroad met in the UNESCO Office, Mogadishu, to discuss a UNESCO proposal for holding a Somalia Education Conference. It was accepted by all present that, through a process of consultation and exchange of information, a transition must be made from the present piecemeal educational efforts to a more coordinated educational strategy.

13.5 The meeting listed several substantive issues to be taken up during the Conference such as community involvement, teacher salaries, sustainability, educational priorities, educational standards, unified and uniform curriculum, inservice teacher training, a decentralized, regional school administration, gathering, processing, analyzing and storing of relevant data, complementarity, networking and coordination among the agencies at work in the field of education.

13.6 The following conference participants were identified: U N agencies, NGOs operating in Somalia, cross-border agencies and those working with Somali refugees, regional education committees, regional educational administrative bodies where they exist, and donors as observers.

13.7 A Steering Committee which was appointed comprising representatives from UNESCO, UNICEF, UNOSOM, NGO Consortium, cross-border agencies and agencies working with Somali refugees met on February 9, 1994 in the UNESCO Office in Mogadishu and decided that the Conference should be held in the first week of May in Addis Ababa or, if conditions are conducive, in Mogadishu.

13.8 To ensure proper regional representation, it was decided that the Steering Committee should work in close collaboration with UN agencies, NGOs and local bodies and bring one representative from each of the 18 regions of Somalia for a pre-Conference consultation in Mogadishu on March 23 and 24, 1994.

13.9 UNESCO Education Adviser was unanimously elected Chairman of the Steering Committee and UNESCO office in Mogadishu was asked to provide the necessary administrative support for the Conference. A Standing Committee was formed to meet frequently and attend to organizational details. All major decisions, however, will be made by the Steering Committee, particularly, those concerning Conference budget and funding. Two Steering Committee meetings are scheduled before the pre-Conference consultation.

14. Conclusion

A report of this type does not need a conclusion. UNESCO-Somalia's activities and achievements do not conclude here but continue. The reader must have noted that, in the absence of a popularly elected government and duly constituted MOE, UNESCO-Somalia has discharged, de facto, and may we say effectively and efficiently, several functions and duties of an MOE. Ideas and initiatives, enthusiasm and enterprise have not been lacking. Actually, as an experiment in emergency education, UNESCO-Somalia has attracted attention across Somalia's borders and requests keep coming to share expertise as well as teaching-learning materials that have been produced so far. Perhaps the time is now ripe for a meeting of minds of those interested in evolving a pedagogy suited to war-torn nations and communities of displaced persons and refugees.


'World Bank Staff Appraisal Report. Somalia Democratic Republic. Education Rehabilitation Project, March 1990, p. 2.
'IL/JASPA. Generating Employment and Incomes in Somalia, Addis Ababa, 1989, pp. 108-109. 'World Bank/UNESCO. "Somalia, Identification/Preliminary Preparation Mission: Basic Education," Mogadishu, 8-29 Nov.1987, pp. 2-3, 6. Also, see, UNESCO. The Primary Education Crisis in Somalia and Ways to Resolve It, Paris, January, 1988, p.16.
4UNESCO. Op.Cit. 1988, p.20 and Appendix titled "Physical Facilities."
5Bradley, J. et al. "Primary Educational Needs in Somaliland" (a report for SCF-UK). international Extension College, Cambridge, March 1992.
6 UNESCO/UNICEF/WFP. Some Recent Ideas in School Feeding, Paris, 19N, pp.57, 105.
7 MOE, Department of Planning, Rep. of Somaliland. Educational Statistics YearBook 198788, 1991-92, 1992-93, Hargeisa 1993, p. iv .
'MOE, Republic of Somaliland. Op.cit, p.27.